Research Studies References

Below is our list of selected research studies to support the claims we make in treating or curing various health conditions.

Other selected research studies can be found in References Selected Studies.

Acai - Selected References

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Acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) polyphenolics in their glycoside and aglycone forms induce apoptosis of HL-60 leukemia cells.
Del Pozo-Insfran D, Percival SS, Talcott ST.
J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Feb 22;54(4):1222-9.

Antioxidant capacity and other bioactivities of the freeze-dried Amazonian palm berry, Euterpe oleraceae mart. (acai).
Schauss AG, Wu X, Prior RL, Ou B, Huang D, Owens J, Agarwal A, Jensen GS, Hart AN, Shanbrom E.
J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Nov 1;54(22):8604-10.

Comparison of antioxidant potency of commonly consumed polyphenol-rich beverages in the United States.
Seeram NP, Aviram M, Zhang Y, Henning SM, Feng L, Dreher M, Heber D.
J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Feb 27;56(4):1415-22.

Pharmacokinetics of anthocyanins and antioxidant effects after the consumption of anthocyanin-rich acai juice and pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) in human healthy volunteers.
Mertens-Talcott SU, Rios J, Jilma-Stohlawetz P, Pacheco-Palencia LA, Meibohm B, Talcott ST, Derendorf H.
J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Sep 10;56(17):7796-802.

Antioxidant, mutagenic, and antimutagenic activity of frozen fruits.
Spada PD, de Souza GG, Bortolini GV, Henriques JA, Salvador M.
J Med Food. 2008 Mar;11(1):144-51.

Berry fruits: compositional elements, biochemical activities, and the impact of their intake on human health, performance, and disease.
J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Feb 13;56(3):627-9.

[Correlation between antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds of açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart) comercial pulps] [Article in Portuguese]
Santos GM, Maia GA, Sousa PH, Costa JM, Figueiredo RW, Prado GM.
Arch Latinoam Nutr. 2008 Jun;58(2):187-92.

In vitro and in vivo antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities of an antioxidant-rich fruit and berry juice blend. Results of a pilot and randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study.
Jensen GS, Wu X, Patterson KM, Barnes J, Carter SG, Scherwitz L, Beaman R, Endres JR, Schauss AG.
J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Sep 24;56(18):8326-33.

Apple Cider Vinegar - Selected References

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Fushimi T, Suruga K, Oshima Y, Fukiharu M, Tsukamoto Y, Goda T.
Dietary acetic acid reduces serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet.
Br J Nutr. 2006 May;95(5):916-24.

Liljeberg H, Björck I. Hlebowicz J, Darwiche G, Björgell O, Almér LO.
Effect of ACV on delayed gastric emptying in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a pilot study.
BMC Gastroenterol. 2007 Dec 20;7:46

Hill LL, Woodruff LH, Foote JC, Barreto-Alcoba M.
Esophageal injury by ACV tablets and subsequent evaluation of products.
J Am Diet Assoc. 2005 Jul;105(7):1141-4.

Wolman PG.
Management of patients using unproven regimens for arthritis.
J Am Diet Assoc. 1987 Sep;87(9):1211-4.

Ralston SL.
Clinical nutrition of adult horses.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract. 1990 Aug;6(2):339-54.

Lhotta K, Hofle G, Gasser R, Finkenstedt G.
Hypokalemia, hyperreninemia, and osteoporosis in a patient ingesting large amounts of cider vinegar.
Nephron 1998;80:242-3.

Mohamed el-OA, Mohamed SM, Mohamed KA.
The effect of cider vinegar on some nutritional and physiological parameters in mice.
J Egypt Public Health Assoc. 2001;76(1-2):17-36.

Arginine - Selected References

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Cancer. 2008 Jan 15;112(2):372-81.
Increased inducible nitric oxide synthase in lung carcinoma of smokers.
Chen GG, Lee TW, Xu H, Yip JH, Li M, Mok TS, Yim AP.

Clin Cancer Res. 2006 Feb 15;12(4):1201-7.
Nitric oxide in breast cancer: induction of vascular endothelial growth factor-C and correlation with metastasis and poor prognosis.
Nakamura Y, Yasuoka H, Tsujimoto M, Yoshidome K, Nakahara M, Nakao K, Nakamura M, Kakudo K.

BMC Cancer. 2008 Sep 30;8:274.
CXCR4 expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma: induction by nitric oxide and correlation with lymph node metastasis.
Yasuoka H, Kodama R, Hirokawa M, Takamura Y, Miyauchi A, Sanke T, Nakamura Y.

Clin Cardiol. 2000 Mar;23(3):205-10.
L-arginine reduces heart rate and improves hemodynamics in severe congestive heart failure.
Bocchi EA, Vilella de Moraes AV, Esteves-Filho A, Bacal F, Auler JO, Carmona MJ, Bellotti G, Ramires AF.

Am J Cardiol. 1999 May 15;83(10):1488-90, A8.
Clinical and inflammatory effects of dietary L-arginine in patients with intractable angina pectoris.
Blum A, Porat R, Rosenschein U, Keren G, Roth A, Laniado S, Miller H.

J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2007 Feb;22(1):121-6.
Arginine deiminases: therapeutic tools in the etiology and pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.
Louw C, Gordon A, Johnston N, Mollatt C, Bradley G, Whiteley CG.

JAMA. 2006 May 10;295(18):2138-9
L-arginine therapy in acute myocardial infarction: the Vascular Interaction With Age in Myocardial Infarction (VINTAGE MI) randomized clinical trial.
Schulman SP, Becker LC, Kass DA, Champion HC, Terrin ML, Forman S, Ernst KV, Kelemen MD, Townsend SN, Capriotti A, Hare JM, Gerstenblith G.

Clin Nutr. 2008 Nov 24
Inhibition of gastric cancer cell growth by arginine: Molecular mechanisms of action.
Nanthakumaran S, Brown I, Heys SD, Schofield AC.

J Hematol Oncol. 2008 Sep 25;1:14.
Effect of arginase II on L-arginine depletion and cell growth in murine cell lines of renal cell carcinoma.
Tate DJ Jr, Vonderhaar DJ, Caldas YA, Metoyer T, Patterson JR 4th, Aviles DH, Zea AH.

Toxicol Sci. 2008 Dec;106(2):364-75.
Gaseous nitrogen oxide promotes human lung cancer cell line A549 migration, invasion, and metastasis via iNOS-mediated MMP-2 production.
Chen JH, Lin HH, Chiang TA, Hsu JD, Ho HH, Lee YC, Wang CJ.

Nitric Oxide. 2008 Sep;19(2):103-6.
Nitric oxide, N omega-hydroxy-L-arginine and breast cancer.
Pervin S, Singh R, Chaudhuri G.

Circulation 1996;93:2135-41.
Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of supplemental oral L-arginine in patients with heart failure.
Rector TS, Bank AJ, Mullen KA, et al.

J Hypertens 2000;18:229-34.
Effects of oral administration of L-arginine on renal function in patients with heart failure.
Watanabe G, Tomiyama H, Doba N.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;35:706-13.
Correction of endothelial dysfunction in chronic heart failure: additional effects of exercise training and oral L-arginine supplementation.
Hambrecht R, Hilbrich L, Erbs S, et al.

Circulation 2000;101:2160-4.
Oral L-arginine in patients with coronary artery disease on medical management.
Blum A, Hathaway L, Mincemoyer R, et al.

Diabetes Care 2004;27:284-5.
Improvement of temperature and flow in feet of subjects with diabetes with use of a transdermal preparation of L-arginine: a pilot study.
Fossel ET.

BJU Int. 1999 Feb;83(3):269-73.
Effect of oral administration of high-dose nitric oxide donor L-arginine in men with organic erectile dysfunction: results of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.
Chen J, Wollman Y, Chernichovsky T, Iaina A, Sofer M, Matzkin H.

Am J Med 2000;108:439.
Effect of oral administration of L-arginine on senile dementia.
Ohtsuka Y, Nakaya J.

J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002 Jan 2;39(1):37-45.
Randomized trial of a medical food for the dietary management of chronic, stable angina.
Maxwell AJ, Zapien MP, Pearce GL, MacCallum G, Stone PH.

Int J Cardiol. 2008 Sep 26;129(2):288-91.
Methylated arginines in stable and acute patients with coronary artery disease before and after percutaneous revascularization.
Frobert O, Hjortshoj SP, Simonsen U, Ravkilde J.

Cardiovasc Res. 2007 Jan 15;73(2):326-40.
Nutrition, physical activity, and cardiovascular disease: an update.
Ignarro LJ, Balestrieri ML, Napoli C.

Heart. 2005 Oct;91(10):1319-23.
Effects of vitamin C on intracoronary L-arginine dependent coronary vasodilatation in patients with stable angina.
Tousoulis D, Xenakis C, Tentolouris C, Davies G, Antoniades C, Crake T, Stefanadis C.

Heart. 2003 May;89(5):531-4.
Effects of L-arginine on flow mediated dilatation induced by atrial pacing in diseased epicardial coronary arteries.
Tousoulis D, Davies GJ, Tentolouris C, Crake T, Goumas G, Stefanadis C, Toutouzas P.

Heart. 2001 Sep;86(3):296-301.
Vasomotor effects of L- and D-arginine in stenotic atheromatous coronary plaque.
Tousoulis D, Davies GJ, Tentolouris C, Goumas G, Stefanadis C, Toutouzas P.

Int J Cardiol. 2000 Sep 15;75(2-3):205-10.
Effects of oral L-arginine supplementation on exercise-induced QT dispersion and exercise tolerance in stable angina pectoris.
Bednarz B, Wolk R, Chamiec T, Herbaczynska-Cedro K, Winek D, Ceremuzynski L.

J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001 Aug;38(2):499-505.
Endothelium-dependent vasodilation is independent of the plasma L-arginine/ADMA ratio in men with stable angina: lack of effect of oral L-arginine on endothelial function, oxidative stress and exercise performance.
Walker HA, McGing E, Fisher I, Boger RH, Bode-Böger SM, Jackson G, Ritter JM, Chowienczyk PJ.

Hypertension. 2008 Jun;51(6):1531-6. Epub 2008 Apr 21.
Excessive nitric oxide function and blood pressure regulation in patients with autonomic failure.
Gamboa A, Shibao C, Diedrich A, Paranjape SY, Farley G, Christman B, Raj SR, Robertson D, Biaggioni I.

Hypertens Pregnancy. 2007;26(1):121-30.
L-arginine supplementation in patients with gestational hypertension: a pilot study.
Facchinetti F, Saade GR, Neri I, Pizzi C, Longo M, Volpe A.

Int J Impot Res. 2008 Mar-Apr;20(2):173-80.
Improvement of erectile function with Prelox: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.
Stanislavov R, Nikolova V, Rohdewald P.

Eur Urol. 2002 Jun;41(6):608-13; discussion 613.

Efficacy and safety of a novel combination of L-arginine glutamate and yohimbine hydrochloride: a new oral therapy for erectile dysfunction.

Lebret T, Herva JM, Gorny P, Worcel M, Botto H.

Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2005 Jan;59(1):85-93.
An oral yohimbine/L-arginine combination (NMI 861) for the treatment of male erectile dysfunction: a pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and interaction study with intravenous nitroglycerine in healthy male subjects.
Kernohan AF, McIntyre M, Hughes DM, Tam SW, Worcel M, Reid JL.

J Nutr. 2000 Nov;130(11):2626-9. Review.
Arginine nutrition and cardiovascular function.
Wu G, Meininger CJ.

J Nutr 2000;130:2626-9.
Arginine nutrition and cardiovascular function.
Wu G, Meininger CJ.

Urol Int. 1999;63(4):220-3.
Effectiveness of oral L-arginine in first-line treatment of erectile dysfunction in a controlled crossover study.
Klotz T, Mathers MJ, Braun M, Bloch W, Engelmann U.

JAMA. 2004 Jun 23;291(24):2978-84.
Effect of lifestyle changes on erectile dysfunction in obese men: a randomized controlled trial.
Esposito K, Giugliano F, Di Palo C, Giugliano G, Marfella R, D'Andrea F, D'Armiento M, Giugliano D.

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2008 Apr;135(4):762-70, 770.e1.
Concomitant treatment with oral L-arginine improves the efficacy of surgical angiogenesis in patients with severe diffuse coronary artery disease: the Endothelial Modulation in Angiogenic Therapy randomized controlled trial.
Ruel M, Beanlands RS, Lortie M, Chan V, Camack N, deKemp RA, Suuronen EJ, Rubens FD, DaSilva JN, Sellke FW, Stewart DJ, Mesana TG.

Heart. 2005 Oct;91(10):1319-23.
Effects of vitamin C on intracoronary L-arginine dependent coronary vasodilatation in patients with stable angina.
Tousoulis D, Xenakis C, Tentolouris C, Davies G, Antoniades C, Crake T, Stefanadis C.

Am J Cardiol. 2004 Apr 1;93(7):933-5.
Effect of oral L-arginine on blood pressure and symptoms and endothelial function in patients with systemic hypertension, positive exercise tests, and normal coronary arteries.
Palloshi A, Fragasso G, Piatti P, Monti LD, Setola E, Valsecchi G, Galluccio E,Chierchia SL, Margonato A.

Atherosclerosis. 2004 Jun;174(2):323-7.
L-arginine attenuates lymphocyte activation and anti-oxidized LDL antibody levels in patients undergoing angioplasty.
George J, Shmuel SB, Roth A, Herz I, Izraelov S, Deutsch V, Keren G, Miller H.

Heart Vessels. 2002 Jul;16(5):171-4.
Augmented vasodilator response to L-arginine after coronary angioplasty may attenuate restenosis.
Fukumoto Y, Urabe Y, Kubo T, Kaku T, Egashira K, Shimokawa H, Takeshita A.

J Clin Invest. 1996 Apr 15;97(8):1989-94.
Oral L-arginine improves endothelium-dependent dilation in hypercholesterolemic young adults.
Clarkson P, Adams MR, Powe AJ, Donald AE, McCredie R, Robinson J, McCarthy SN, Keech A, Celermajer DS, Deanfield JE.

Acta Physiol Hung. 1996;84(4):457-8.
L-arginine--substrate for no synthesis--its beneficial effects in therapy of patients with peripheral arterial disease: comparison with placebo-preliminary results.
Slawinski M, Grodzinska L, Kostka-Trabka E, Bieron K, Goszcz A, Gryglewski RJ.

J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002 Jan 2;39(1):37-45.
Randomized trial of a medical food for the dietary management of chronic, stable angina.
Maxwell AJ, Zapien MP, Pearce GL, MacCallum G, Stone PH.

J Extra Corpor Technol. 2001 Feb;33(1):10-4.
Effects of L-arginine cardioplegia on myocardium.
Jiang Z, Kejian H, Lei CY, Gu K.

J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001 Aug;38(2):499-505.
Endothelium-dependent vasodilation is independent of the plasma L-arginine/ADMA ratio in men with stable angina: lack of effect of oral L-arginine on endothelial function, oxidative stress and exercise performance.
Walker HA, McGing E, Fisher I, Bager RH, Bode-Bager SM, Jackson G, Ritter JM,Chowienczyk PJ.

Int J Cardiol. 2000 Sep 15;75(2-3):205-10.
Effects of oral L-arginine supplementation on exercise-induced QT dispersion and exercise tolerance in stable angina pectoris.
Bednarz B, Wolk R, Chamiec T, Herbaczynska-Cedro K, Winek D, Ceremuzynski L.

Ter Arkh. 2000;72(8):24-7.
[Effect of L-arginine on platelet aggregation, endothelial function on exercise tolerance in patients with stable angina pectoris] [Article in Russian]
Sozykin AV, Noeva EA, Balakhonova TV, Pogorelova OA, Men'shikov MIu.

Akush Ginekol (Sofiia). 2007;46(5):7-12.
[Sperm parameters in male idiopathic infertility after treatment with prelox] [Article in Bulgarian]
Nikolova V, Stanislavov R, Vatev I, Nalbanski B, Pŭnevska M.

Am J Cardiol. 1997 Aug 1;80(3):331-3.
Effect of supplemental oral L-arginine on exercise capacity in patients with stable angina pectoris.
Ceremuzya„ski L, Chamiec T, Herbaczya„ska-Cedro K.

Lancet. 1997 Jun 21;349(9068):1812-3.
Coronary stenosis dilatation induced by L-arginine.
Tousoulis D, Davies G, Tentolouris C, Crake T, Toutouzas P.

J Am Coll Cardiol. 1996 Nov 1;28(5):1161-7.
Deficiency in nitric oxide bioactivity in epicardial coronary arteries of cigarette smokers.
Kugiyama K, Yasue H, Ohgushi M, Motoyama T, Kawano H, Inobe Y, Hirashima O, Sugiyama S.

J Sex Med. 2008 Jul;5(7):1623-35.
Nitric oxide synthesis leads to vascular endothelial growth factor synthesis via the NO/cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) pathway in human corpuscavernosal smooth muscle cells.
Komori K, Tsujimura A, Takao T, Matsuoka Y, Miyagawa Y, Takada S, Nonomura N, Okuyama A.

Int J Urol. 2008 Feb;15(2):128-34.
Significance of nitric oxide and its modulation mechanisms by endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitors and arginase in the micturition disorders and erectile dysfunction.
Masuda H.

J Urol. 2007 Oct;178(4 Pt 1):1543-8.
Optimizing nitric oxide production by time dependent L-arginine administration in isolated human corpus cavernosum.
Gur S, Kadowitz PJ, Trost L, Hellstrom WJ.

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2007 Jun;36(2):533-52.
Dietary supplements and nutraceuticals in the management of andrologic disorders.
Tamler R, Mechanick JI.

J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2006 Dec;8(12 Suppl 4):2-16.
Aspects of nitric oxide in health and disease: a focus on hypertension and cardiovascular disease.
Giles TD.

Vascul Pharmacol. 2006 Nov;45(5):268-76.
Nitric oxide and the endothelium: history and impact on cardiovascular disease.
Yetik-Anacak G, Catravas JD.

Altern Med Rev. 2006 Mar;11(1):23-9.
The effects of sustained-release-L-arginine formulation on blood pressure and vascular compliance in 29 healthy individuals.
Miller AL.

Pharmacol Ther. 2005 May;106(2):233-66.
Nitric oxide and penile erectile function.
Toda N, Ayajiki K, Okamura T.

Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2005 Jan;59(1):85-93.
An oral yohimbine/L-arginine combination (NMI 861) for the treatment of male erectile dysfunction: a pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and interaction study with intravenous nitroglycerine in healthy male subjects.
Kernohan AF, McIntyre M, Hughes DM, Tam SW, Worcel M, Reid JL.

Am J Chin Med. 2004;32(2):161-73.
Alternative therapies for male and female sexual dysfunction.
Aung HH, Dey L, Rand V, Yuan CS.

Altern Med Rev. 2004 Mar;9(1):4-16.
Nutrients and botanicals for erectile dysfunction: examining the evidence.
McKay D..

Nitric oxide, human diseases and the herbal products that affect the nitric oxide signalling pathway.
Achike FI, Kwan CY.

Biochemistry. 2003 Jul 22;42(28):8445-51.
Human arginase II: crystal structure and physiological role in male and female sexual arousal.
Cama E, Colleluori DM, Emig FA, Shin H, Kim SW, Kim NN, Traish AM, Ash DE, Christianson DW.

Altern Med Rev. 2002 Dec;7(6):512-22.
Arginine: Clinical potential of a semi-essential amino.
Appleton J.

Urol Clin North Am. 2002 Feb;29(1):11-22, vii.
Dietary supplements and other alternative medicines for erectile dysfunction. What do I tell my patients?
Moyad MA.

Diabetologia. 2001 Sep;44(9):1155-60.
Erectile and endothelial dysfunction in Type II diabetes: a possible link.
De Angelis L, Marfella MA, Siniscalchi M, Marino L, Nappo F, Giugliano F, De Lucia D, Giugliano D.

Nutrition. 2002 Jul-Aug;18(7-8):657-61.
Use of amino acids as growth hormone-releasing agents by athletes.
Chromiak JA, Antonio J.

J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 1989 Mar;29(1):52-6.
Effects of arginine and ornithine on strength, lean body mass and urinary hydroxyproline in adult males.
Elam RP, Hardin DH, Sutton RA, Hagen L.

Curr Med Res Opin. 2000;16 Suppl 1:s42-7.
Cardiovascular effects of oral pharmacotherapy in erectile dysfunction.
Vardi Y, Gruenwald I.

Biochemistry. 2001 Mar 6;40(9):2678-88.
Probing erectile function: S-(2-boronoethyl)-L-cysteine binds to arginase as a transition state analogue and enhances smooth muscle relaxation in human penile corpus cavernosum.
Kim NN, Cox JD, Baggio RF, Emig FA, Mistry SK, Harper SL, Speicher DW, Morris SM Jr, Ash DE, Traish A, Christianson DW.

Urol Int. 1999;63(4):220-3.Effectiveness of oral L-arginine in first-line treatment of erectile dysfunction in a controlled crossover study.
Klotz T, Mathers MJ, Braun M, Bloch W, Engelmann U.

BJU Int. 1999 Apr;83(6):679-85.
The effects of long-term oral L-arginine on the erectile response of rabbits with alloxan-induced diabetes.
Khan MA, Thompson CS, Mikhailidis DP, Morgan RJ.

BJU Int. 1999 Feb;83(3):269-73.
Effect of oral administration of high-dose nitric oxide donor L-arginine in men with organic erectile dysfunction: results of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.
Chen J, Wollman Y, Chernichovsky T, Iaina A, Sofer M, Matzkin H.

Int J Impot Res. 1994 Mar;6(1):33-5; discussion 36.
Effect of large doses of the nitric oxide precursor, L-arginine, on erectile dysfunction.
Zorgniotti AW, Lizza EF.

Int J Sports Med. 2005 Jun;26(5):344-9.
Influence of chronic supplementation of arginine aspartate in endurance athletes on performance and substrate metabolism - a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
Abel T, Knechtle B, Perret C, Eser P, von Arx P, Knecht H.

Ashwagandha - Selected References

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Restoration of stress-induced altered T cell function and corresponding cytokines patterns by Withanolide A.
Kour K, Pandey A, Suri KA, Satti NK, Gupta KK, Bani S.
Int Immunopharmacol. 2009 Jun 12.

Withania somnifera improves semen quality by regulating reproductive hormone levels and oxidative stress in seminal plasma of infertile males.
Ahmad MK, Mahdi AA, Shukla KK, Islam N, Rajender S, Madhukar D, Shankhwar SN, Ahmad S.
Fertil Steril. 2009 Jun 5.

Effect of Withania somnifera on insulin sensitivity in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus rats.
Anwer T, Sharma M, Pillai KK, Iqbal M.
Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2008 Jun;102(6):498-503.

Chondroprotective potential of root extracts of Withania somnifera in osteoarthritis.
Sumantran VN, Kulkarni A, Boddul S, Chinchwade T, Koppikar SJ, Harsulkar A, Patwardhan B, Chopra A, Wagh UV.
J Biosci. 2007 Mar;32(2):299-307.

Asparagus- Selected References

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Asparanin A induces G(2)/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells.
Liu W, Huang XF, Qi Q, Dai QS, Yang L, Nie FF, Lu N, Gong DD, Kong LY, Guo QL.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009 Apr 17;381(4):700-5.

Immunomodulatory activity of Asparagus racemosus on systemic Th1/Th2 immunity: implications for immunoadjuvant potential.
Gautam M, Saha S, Bani S, Kaul A, Mishra S, Patil D, Satti NK, Suri KA, Gairola S, Suresh K, Jadhav S, Qazi GN, Patwardhan B.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Jan 21;121(2):241-7.

The effect of the aqueous extract of the roots of Asparagus racemosus on hepatocarcinogenesis initiated by diethylnitrosamine.
Agrawal A, Sharma M, Rai SK, Singh B, Tiwari M, Chandra R.
Phytother Res. 2008 Sep;22(9):1175-82.

Astaxanthin and Canthaxanthin - Supplemental References

Astaxanthin vs placebo on arterial stiffness, oxidative stress and inflammation in renal transplant patients (Xanthin): a randomised controlled trial.
Fassett RG, Healy H, Driver R, Robertson IK, Geraghty DP, Sharman JE, Coombes JS.
BMC Nephrol. 2008 Dec 18;9:17.

Astaxanthin prevents in vitro auto-oxidative injury in human lymphocytes.
Bolin AP, Macedo RC, Marin DP, Barros MP, Otton R.
Cell Biol Toxicol.2010 Mar 14.

Astaxanthin attenuates the UVA-induced up-regulation of matrix-metalloproteinase-1 and skin fibroblast elastase in human dermal fibroblasts.
Suganuma K, Nakajima H, Ohtsuki M, Imokawa G.
J Dermatol Sci.2010 Feb 18.

Astaxanthin decreased oxidative stress and inflammation and enhanced immune response in humans.
Park JS, Chyun JH, Kim YK, Line LL, Chew BP.
Nutr Metab (Lond). 2010 Mar 5;7(1):18.

Evaluation of the protective effects of all-trans-astaxanthin on canine osteosarcoma cell lines.
Wakshlag JJ, Balkman CA, Morgan SK, McEntee MC.
Am J Vet Res.2010 Jan;71(1):89-96.

Astaxanthin inhibits H2O2-mediated apoptotic cell death in mouse neural progenitor cells via modulation of P38 and MEK signaling pathways.
Kim JH, Choi W, Lee JH, Jeon SJ, Choi YH, Kim BW, Chang HI, Nam SW.
J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2009 Nov;19(11):1355-63.

Efficacy of the natural antioxidant astaxanthin in the treatment of functional dyspepsia in patients with or without Helicobacter pylori infection: A prospective, randomized, double blind, and placebo-controlled study.
Kupcinskas L, Lafolie P, Lignell A, Kiudelis G, Jonaitis L, Adamonis K, Andersen LP, Wadström T.
Phytomedicine. 2008 Jun;15(6-7):391-9.

Astaxanthin supplementation does not attenuate muscle injury following eccentric exercise in resistance-trained men.
Bloomer RJ, Fry A, Schilling B, Chiu L, Hori N, Weiss L.
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2005 Aug;15(4):401-12.

Combined conventional/antioxidant "Astaxanthin" treatment for male infertility: a double blind, randomized trial.
Comhaire FH, El Garem Y, Mahmoud A, Eertmans F, Schoonjans F.
Asian J Androl. 2005 Sep;7(3):257-62.

Safety of an astaxanthin-rich Haematococcus pluvialis algal extract: a randomized clinical trial.
Spiller GA, Dewell A.
J Med Food. 2003 Spring;6(1):51-6.

Partially saturated canthaxanthin purified from Aspergillus carbonarius induces apoptosis in prostrate cancer cell line.
Kumaresan N, Sanjay KR, Venkatesh KS, Kadeppagari RK, Vijayalakshmi G, Umesh-Kumar S.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2008 Sep;80(3):467-73.

online resources: www.asthaxanthin.org

Bacterial Vaginosis - Supplemental References

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Bacterial vaginosis: an update on diagnosis and treatment.
Verstraelen H, Verhelst R.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2009 Nov;7(9):1109-24.

Boric acid addition to suppressive antimicrobial therapy for recurrent bacterial vaginosis.
Reichman O, Akins R, Sobel JD.
Sex Transm Dis. 2009 Nov;36(11):732-4.

Beet - Selected References

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Protective effect of red beetroot against carbon tetrachloride- and N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced oxidative stress in rats.
J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Mar 25;57(6):2570-5.

Kujawska M, Ignatowicz E, Murias M, Ewertowska M, Mikołajczyk K, Jodynis-Liebert J.
The effect of red beet (Beta vulgaris var. rubra) fiber on alimentary hypercholesterolemia and chemically induced colon carcinogenesis in rats.
Bobek P, Galbavý S, Mariássyová M.
Nahrung. 2000 Jun;44(3):184-7.

Dietary choline and betaine intakes in relation to concentrations of inflammatory markers in healthy adults: the ATTICA study.
Detopoulou P, Panagiotakos DB, Antonopoulou S, Pitsavos C, Stefanadis C.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Feb;87(2):424-30.

Is there a new component of the Mediterranean diet that reduces inflammation?
Zeisel SH.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Feb;87(2):277-8.

Bitter Melon - Selected References

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Bitter Melon: Antagonist to Cancer.
Nerurkar P, Ray RB.
Pharm Res. 2010 Mar 3.

Bitter melon (Momordica charantia) extract inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation by modulating cell cycle regulatory genes and promotes apoptosis.
Ray RB, Raychoudhuri A, Steele R, Nerurkar P.
Cancer Res. 2010 Mar 1;70(5):1925-31.

Bitter melon protects against lipid peroxidation caused by immobilization stress in albino rats.
Chaturvedi P.
Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2009 Jan;79(1):48-56.

Anti-diabetic and hypoglycaemic effects of Momordica charantia (bitter melon): a mini review.
Leung L, Birtwhistle R, Kotecha J, Hannah S, Cuthbertson S.
Br J Nutr. 2009 Dec;102(12):1703-8.

Black Cohosh - Selected References

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Safety and efficacy of black cohosh and red clover for the management of vasomotor symptoms: a randomized controlled trial.
Geller SE, Shulman LP, van Breemen RB, Banuvar S, Zhou Y, Epstein G, Hedayat S, Nikolic D, Krause EC, Piersen CE, Bolton JL, Pauli GF, Farnsworth NR.
Menopause. 2009 Nov-Dec;16(6):1156-66.

The use of herbal preparations to alleviate climacteric disorders and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer in a German case-control study.
Obi N, Chang-Claude J, Berger J, Braendle W, Slanger T, Schmidt M, Steindorf K, Ahrens W, Flesch-Janys D.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009 Aug;18(8):2207-13.

Influence of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) use by postmenopausal women on total hepatic perfusion and liver functions.
Nasr A, Nafeh H.
Fertil Steril. 2009 Jun 17.

Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2009 May;10(7):1133-44.
Treatment strategies for hot flushes.

Gynecol Endocrinol. 2009 Mar;25(3):166-74.
Current alternative and complementary therapies used in menopause.
Wong VC, Lim CE, Luo X, Wong WS.

Gynecol Endocrinol. 2009 Jan;25(1):21-6.
Cimicifuga racemosa treatment and health related quality of life in post-menopausal Spanish women.
Mollá MD, García-Sánchez Y, Sarri AR, Pérez-lópez FR.

A randomized placebo-controlled trial on the effectiveness of an herbal formula to alleviate menopausal vasomotor symptoms.
van der Sluijs CP, Bensoussan A, Chang S, Baber R.
Menopause. 2009 Mar-Apr;16(2):336-44.

[Efficacy and safety ofcohosh (Actaea/Cimicifuga racemosa) in the treatment of vasomotor symptoms--review of clinical trials] [Article in Polish]
Kanadys WM, Leszczyńska-Gorzelak B, Oleszczuk J.
Ginekol Pol. 2008 Apr;79(4):287-96.

Treatment strategies for reducing the burden of menopause-associated vasomotor symptoms.
Umland EM.
J Manag Care Pharm. 2008 Apr;14(3 Suppl):14-9.

Easing vasomotor symptoms: Besides HRT, what works?
McBane SE.
JAAPA. 2008 Apr;21(4):26-31.

Black cohosh-induced hepatitis.
Nisbet BC, O'Connor RE.
Del Med J. 2007 Nov;79(11):441-4.

The safety of black cohosh (Actaea racemosa, Cimicifuga racemosa).
Huntley A.
Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2004 Nov;3(6):615-23. Review.

Inhibitory effects of a black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) extract on prostate cancer.
Seidlová-Wuttke D, Thelen P, Wuttke W.
Planta Med. 2006 May;72(6):521-6.

Triterpenoids from Cimicifugae rhizoma, a novel class of inhibitors on bone resorption and ovariectomy-induced bone loss.
Li JX, Liu J, He CC, Yu ZY, Du Y, Kadota S, Seto H.
Maturitas. 2007 Sep 20;58(1):59-69.

Black cohosh does not exert an estrogenic effect on the breast.
Ruhlen RL, Haubner J, Tracy JK, Zhu W, Ehya H, Lamberson WR, Rottinghaus GE, Sauter ER.
Nutr Cancer. 2007;59(2):269-77.

Antitumor activity of herbal supplements in human prostate cancer xenografts implanted in immunodeficient mice.
Ng SS, Figg WD.
Anticancer Res. 2003 Sep-Oct;23(5A):3585-90.

Apoptosis of human prostate androgen-dependent and -independent carcinoma cells induced by an isopropanolic extract of black cohosh involves degradation of cytokeratin (CK) 18.
Hostanska K, Nisslein T, Freudenstein J, Reichling J, Saller R.
Anticancer Res. 2005 Jan-Feb;25(1A):139-47.

 

Blueberries & Bilberries - Selected References

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Blueberry Supplementation Improves Memory in Older Adults (dagger).
Krikorian R, Shidler MD, Nash TA, Kalt W, Vinqvist-Tymchuk MR, Shukitt-Hale B, Joseph JA.
J Agric Food Chem. 2010 Jan 4.

Antiobesity and antidiabetic effects of biotransformed blueberry juice in KKA(y) mice.
Vuong T, Benhaddou-Andaloussi A, Brault A, Harbilas D, Martineau LC, Vallerand D, Ramassamy C, Matar C, Haddad PS.
Int J Obes (Lond). 2009 Oct;33(10):1166-73.

In utero and lactational exposure to blueberry via maternal diet promotes mammary epithelial differentiation in prepubescent female rats.
Wu X, Rahal O, Kang J, Till SR, Prior RL, Simmen RC.
Nutr Res. 2009 Nov;29(11):802-11.

Oral administration of blueberry inhibits angiogenic tumor growth and enhances survival of mice with endothelial cell neoplasm.
Gordillo G, Fang H, Khanna S, Harper J, Phillips G, Sen CK.
Antioxid Redox Signal. 2009 Jan;11(1):47-58.

Diets containing blueberry extract lower blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats.
Shaughnessy KS, Boswall IA, Scanlan AP, Gottschall-Pass KT, Sweeney MI.
Nutr Res. 2009 Feb;29(2):130-8.

Blueberry opposes beta-amyloid peptide-induced microglial activation via inhibition of p44/42 mitogen-activation protein kinase.
Zhu Y, Bickford PC, Sanberg P, Giunta B, Tan J.
Rejuvenation Res.2008 Oct;11(5):891-901.

Anti-angiogenic, antioxidant, and anti-carcinogenic properties of a novel anthocyanin-rich berry extract formula.
Bagchi D, Sen CK, Bagchi M, Atalay M.
Biochemistry (Mosc). 2004 Jan;69(1):75-80, 1 p preceding 75.

Bromelain - Selected References

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Bromelain as an adjunctive treatment for moderate-to-severe osteoarthritis of theknee: a randomized placebo-controlled pilot study.
Brien S, Lewith G, Walker AF, Middleton R, Prescott P, Bundy R.
QJM. 2006 Dec;99(12):841-50.

Efficacy and tolerance of an oral enzyme combination in painful osteoarthritis ofthe hip. A double-blind, randomised study comparing oral enzymes withnon-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Klein G, Kullich W, Schnitker J, Schwann H.
Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2006 Jan-Feb;24(1):25-30.

Proteinase activity and stability of natural bromelain preparations.
Hale LP, Greer PK, Trinh CT, James CL.
Int Immunopharmacol. 2005 Apr;5(4):783-93.

Oral enzyme combination versus diclofenac in the treatment of osteoarthritis ofthe knee--a double-blind prospective randomized study.
Clin Rheumatol. 2004 Oct;23(5):410-5.

Bromelain reduces mild acute knee pain and improves well-being in adose-dependent fashion in an open study of otherwise healthy adults.
Walker AF, Bundy R, Hicks SM, Middleton RW.
Phytomedicine. 2002 Dec;9(8):681-6.

Efficacy and tolerability of oral enzyme therapy as compared to diclofenac inactive osteoarthrosis of knee joint: an open randomized controlled clinicaltrial.
Tilwe GH, Beria S, Turakhia NH, Daftary GV, Schiess W.
J Assoc Physicians India. 2001 Jun;49:617-21.

Oral therapy with proteolytic enzymes decreases excessive TGF-beta levels inhuman blood.
Desser L, Holomanova D, Zavadova E, Pavelka K, Mohr T, Herbacek I.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2001 Jul;47 Suppl:S10-5.

[Oral enzyme therapy in osteoarthritis of the knee. Proteolytic enzyme are effective with few risks]
MMW Fortschr Med. 2001 Jun 7;143(23):44-6.

Inhibitory effect of enzyme therapy and combination therapy with cyclosporin A oncollagen-induced arthritis.
Rovenska E, Svík K, Stancíkova M, Rovenský J.
Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2001 May-Jun;19(3):303-9.

Enzyme and combination therapy with cyclosporin A in the rat developing adjuvant arthritis.
Rovenska E, Svík K, Stancíková M, Rovenský J.
Int J Tissue React. 1999;21(4):105-11.

[Reducing pain by oral enzyme therapy in rheumatic diseases]
Klein G, Kullich W.
Wien Med Wochenschr. 1999;149(21-22):577-80.

Prevention of murine EAE by oral hydrolytic enzyme treatment.
Targoni OS, Tary-Lehmann M, Lehmann PV.
J Autoimmun. 1999 May;12(3):191-8.

Burdock - Selected References

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Prebiotic effectiveness of inulin extracted from edible burdock.
Li D, Kim JM, Jin Z, Zhou J.
Anaerobe. 2008 Feb;14(1):29-34.

Effects of arctiin on PhIP-induced mammary, colon and pancreatic carcinogenesis in female Sprague-Dawley rats and MeIQx-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in male F344 rats.
Hirose M, Yamaguchi T, Lin C, Kimoto N, Futakuchi M, Kono T, Nishibe S, Shirai T.
Cancer Lett. 2000 Jul 3;155(1):79-88.

A desmutagenic factor isolated from burdock (Arctium lappa Linne).
Morita K, Kada T, Namiki M.
Mutat Res. 1984 Oct;129(1):25-31.

Anti-inflammatory and radical scavenge effects of Arctium lappa.
Lin CC, Lu JM, Yang JJ, Chuang SC, Ujiie T.
Am J Chin Med. 1996;24(2):127-37.

Caffeine - Selected References

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Relationship of blood pressure, behavioral mood state, and physical activity following caffeine ingestion in younger and older women.
Arciero PJ, Ormsbee MJ.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2009 Aug;34(4):754-62.

The effect of a carbohydrate-caffeine sports drink on simulated golf performance.
Stevenson EJ, Hayes PR, Allison SJ.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2009 Aug;34(4):681-8.

The efficacy of acetaminophen-caffeine compared to Ibuprofen in the control of postoperative pain after periodontal surgery: a crossover pilot study.
Rashwan WA.
J Periodontol. 2009 Jun;80(6):945-52.

Improved cycling time-trial performance after ingestion of a caffeine energy drink.
Ivy JL, Kammer L, Ding Z, Wang B, Bernard JR, Liao YH, Hwang J.
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2009 Feb;19(1):61-78.

The effects of caffeine ingestion on time trial cycling performance.
McNaughton LR, Lovell RJ, Siegler J, Midgley AW, Moore L, Bentley DJ.
Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2008 Jun;3(2):157-63.

Green tea catechin consumption enhances exercise-induced abdominal fat loss in overweight and obese adults.
Maki KC, Reeves MS, Farmer M, Yasunaga K, Matsuo N, Katsuragi Y, Komikado M, Tokimitsu I, Wilder D, Jones F, Blumberg JB, Cartwright Y.
J Nutr. 2009 Feb;139(2):264-70.

Body weight loss and weight maintenance in relation to habitual caffeine intake and green tea supplementation.
Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Lejeune MP, Kovacs EM.
Obes Res. 2005 Jul;13(7):1195-204.

Effect of a dietary herbal supplement containing caffeine and ephedra on weight, metabolic rate, and body composition.
Greenway FL, De Jonge L, Blanchard D, Frisard M, Smith SR.
Obes Res. 2004 Jul;12(7):1152-7.

Herbal ephedra/caffeine for weight loss: a 6-month randomized safety and efficacy trial.
Boozer CN, Daly PA, Homel P, Solomon JL, Blanchard D, Nasser JA, Strauss R, Meredith T.
Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2002 May;26(5):593-604.

Cancer - Selected References

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Environmental and heritable factors in the causation of cancer--analyses of cohorts of twins from Sweden, Denmark, and Finland.
Lichtenstein P, Holm NV, Verkasalo PK, Iliadou A, Kaprio J, Koskenvuo M, Pukkala E, Skytthe A, Hemminki K.
N Engl J Med. 2000 Jul 13;343(2):78-85.

Fruit, vegetables, and cancer prevention: a review of the epidemiological evidence.
Block G, Patterson B, Subar A.
Nutr Cancer. 1992;18(1):1-29.

Catnip - Selected References

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Efficacy and safety of catnip (Nepeta cataria) as a novel filth fly repellent.
Zhu JJ, Zeng XP, Berkebile D, DU HJ, Tong Y, Qian K.
Med Vet Entomol. 2009 Sep;23(3):209-16.

Dihydronepetalactones deter feeding activity by mosquitoes, stable flies, and deer ticks.
Feaster JE, Scialdone MA, Todd RG, Gonzalez YI, Foster JP, Hallahan DL.
J Med Entomol. 2009 Jul;46(4):832-40.

Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the essential oil and methanol extract of Nepeta cataria.
Adiguzel A, Ozer H, Sokmen M, Gulluce M, Sokmen A, Kilic H, Sahin F, Baris O.
Pol J Microbiol. 2009;58(1):69-76.

Antibacterial activity and composition of the essential oil of Nepeta menthoides from Iran.
Sonboli A, Gholipour A, Yousefzadi M, Mojarrad M.
Nat Prod Commun. 2009 Feb;4(2):283-6.

Chemical composition and mechanisms underlying the spasmolytic and bronchodilatory properties of the essential oil of Nepeta cataria L.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Jan 30;121(3):405-11.

Evaluation of the anxiolytic effect of Nepeta persica Boiss. in mice.
Rabbani M, Sajjadi SE, Mohammadi A.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2008 Jun;5(2):181-6.

Is the extract from the plant catmint (Nepeta cataria) repellent to mosquitoes in Australia?
Webb CE, Russell RC.
J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2007 Sep;23(3):351-4.

Catuaba - Selected References

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Effects of the extract of Anemopaegma mirandum on Rotenone-induced poptosis in human neuroblastomas SH-SY5Y cells.

Valverde G De Andrade D, Madureira de Oliveria D, Barreto G, Bertolino LA, araceno E, Capani F, Giraldez LD.
Brain Res. 2008 Mar 10;1198:188-96.

Classification of commercial Catuaba samples by NMR, HPLC and chemometrics.
Daolio C, Beltrame FL, Ferreira AG, Cass QB, Cortez DA, Ferreira MM.
Phytochem Anal. 2008 May;19(3):218-28.

Flavan-3-ol-phenylpropanoid conjugates from Anemopaegma arvense and their antioxidant activities.
Tabanca N, Pawar RS, Ferreira D, Marais JP, Khan SI, Joshi V, Wedge DE, Khan IA.
Planta Med. 2007 Aug;73(10):1107-11.

Antidepressant-like effects of Trichilia catigua extract: evidence for dopaminergic-mediated mechanisms.
Campos MM, Fernandes ES, Ferreira J, Santos AR, Calixto JB.
Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2005 Oct;182(1):45-53.

Clinical toxicology study of an herbal medicinal extract of Paullinia cupana, richilia catigua, Ptychopetalum olacoides and Zingiber officinale (Catuama) in ealthy volunteers.
Oliveira CH, Moraes ME, Moraes MO, Bezerra FA, Abib E, De Nucci G.
Phytother Res. 2005 Jan;19(1):54-7.

Inhibition of platelet phospholipase A2 activity by catuaba extract suggests ntiinflammatory properties.
Barbosa NR, Fischmann L, Talib LL, Gattaz WF.
Phytother Res. 2004 Nov;18(11):942-4.

Morphological, chemical and functional analysis of preparations.
Kletter C, Glasl S, Presser A, Werner I, Reznicek G, Narantuya S, Cellek S,Haslinger E, Jurenitsch J.
Planta Med. 2004 Oct;70(10):993-1000.
Potent protecting effects of [Catuaba] (Anemopaegma mirandum) extracts against ydroperoxide-induced cytotoxicity.
Uchino T, Kawahara N, Sekita S, Satake M, Saito Y, Tokunaga H, Ando M.
Toxicol In Vitro. 2004 Jun;18(3):255-63.

Effects ofCatuaba extracts on microbial and HIV infection.
Manabe H, Sakagami H, Ishizone H, Kusano H, Fujimaki M, Wada C, Komatsu N, akashima H, Murakami T, Yamamoto N.
In Vivo. 1992 Mar-Apr;6(2):161-5.

Chondroitin - Selected References

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Kahan A, Uebelhart D, De Vathaire F, Delmas PD, Reginster JY.
Long-term effects of chondroitins 4 and 6 sulfate on knee osteoarthritis: The study on osteoarthritis progression prevention, a two-year, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
Arthritis Rheum. 2009 Jan 29;60(2):524-533.

Silva FS Jr, Yoshinari NH, Castro RR, Girão VC, Pompeu MM, de Andrade Feitosa JP, Rocha FA.
Combined glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate provides functional and structural benefit in the anterior cruciate ligament transection model.
Clin Rheumatol. 2008 Sep 13.

Nickel JC, Egerdie B, Downey J, Singh R, Skehan A, Carr L, Irvine-Bird K.
A real-life multicentre clinical practice study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravesical chondroitin sulphate for the treatment of interstitial cystitis.
BJU Int. 2008 Sep 3.

Nordling J, van Ophoven A.
Intravesical glycosaminoglycan replenishment with chondroitin sulphate in chronic forms of cystitis. A multi-national, multi-centre, prospective observational clinical trial.
Arzneimittelforschung. 2008;58(7):328-35.

Nganvongpanit K, Itthiarbha A, Ong-Chai S, Kongtawelert P.
Evaluation of serum chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronan: biomarkers for osteoarthritis in canine hip dysplasia.
J Vet Sci. 2008 Sep;9(3):317-25.

Lamari FN.
The potential of chondroitin sulfate as a therapeutic agent.
Connect Tissue Res. 2008;49(3):289-92.

Monfort J, Martel-Pelletier J, Pelletier JP.
CS for symptomatic osteoarthritis: critical appraisal of meta-analyses.
Curr Med Res Opin. 2008 May;24(5):1303-8. Epub 2008 Apr 15. Review.

Zhang W, Moskowitz RW, Nuki G, Abramson S, Altman RD, Arden N, Bierma-Zeinstra S, Brandt KD, Croft P, Doherty M, Dougados M, Hochberg M, Hunter DJ, Kwoh K, Lohmander LS, Tugwell P.
OARSI recommendations for the management of hip and knee osteoarthritis, Part II: OARSI evidence-based, expert consensus guidelines.
Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2008 Feb;16(2):137-62. Review.

Gregory PJ, Sperry M, Wilson AF
Dietary supplements for osteoarthritis.
Am Fam Physician. 2008 Jan 15;77(2):177-84. Review.

DeHaan MN, Guzman J, Bayley MT, Bell MJ.
Knee osteoarthritis clinical practice guidelines -- how are we doing?
J Rheumatol. 2007 Oct;34(10):2099-105.

Bruyere O, Reginster JY.
Glucosamine and CS sulfate as therapeutic agents for knee and hip osteoarthritis.
Drugs Aging. 2007;24(7):573-80. Review.

Messier SP, Mihalko S, Loeser RF, Legault C, Jolla J, Pfruender J, Prosser B, Adrian A, Williamson JD.
Glucosamine/CS combined with exercise for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: a preliminary study.
Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2007 Nov;15(11):1256-66.

Frech TM, Clegg DO.
The utility of nutraceuticals in the treatment of osteoarthritis.
Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2007 Apr;9(1):25-30. Review.

Marshall PD, Poddar S, Tweed EM, Brandes L.
Clinical inquiries: Do glucosamine and CS worsen blood sugar control in diabetes?
J Fam Pract. 2006 Dec;55(12):1091-3. Review.

Lagnaoui R, Baumevielle M, Bégaud B, Pouyanne P, Maurice G, Depont F, Moore N.
Less use of NSAIDs in long-term than in recent chondroitin sulphate users in osteoarthritis: a pharmacy-based observational study in France.
Therapie. 2006 Jul-Aug;61(4):341-6.

Distler J, Anguelouch A.
Evidence-based practice: review of clinical evidence on the efficacy of glucosamine and CS in the treatment of osteoarthritis.
J Am Acad Nurse Pract. 2006 Oct;18(10):487-93. Review.

Hathcock JN, Shao A.
Risk assessment for glucosamine and CS.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2007 Feb;47(1):78-83. Epub 2006 Aug 30. Review.

Lems WF, Bijlsma JW.
[Effectiveness of dietary supplements in patients with osteoarthritis: the doubt persists]
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2006 May 20;150(20):1105-7. Dutch.

McCarthy G, O'Donovan J, Jones B, McAllister H, Seed M, Mooney C.
Randomised double-blind, positive-controlled trial to assess the efficacy of glucosamine/chondroitin sulfate for the treatment of dogs with osteoarthritis.
Vet J. 2007 Jul;174(1):54-61. Epub 2006 May 2.

Goodrich LR, Nixon AJ.
Medical treatment of osteoarthritis in the horse - a review.
Vet J. 2006 Jan;171(1):51-69. Review.

McAlindon TE, Biggee BA.
Nutritional factors and osteoarthritis: recent developments.
Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2005 Sep;17(5):647-52. Review.

Chromium - Selected References

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Complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
Nahas R, Moher M.
Can Fam Physician. 2009 Jun;55(6):591-6.

Chromium picolinate does not improve key features of metabolic syndrome in obese nondiabetic adults.
Iqbal N, Cardillo S, Volger S, Bloedon LT, Anderson RA, Boston R, Szapary PO.
Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2009 Summer;7(2):143-50.

Nutritional supplementation for type 2 diabetes: a systematic review.
Bartlett HE, Eperjesi F.
Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2008 Nov;28(6):503-23.

Antioxidant effects and insulin resistance improvement of chromium combined with vitamin C and e supplementation for type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Lai MH.
J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2008 Nov;43(3):191-8.

Chromium alleviates glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and hepatic ER stress in obese mice.
Sreejayan N, Dong F, Kandadi MR, Yang X, Ren J.
Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008 Jun;16(6):1331-7.

Chromium picolinate does not produce chromosome damage.
Komorowski JR, Greenberg D, Juturu V.
Toxicol In Vitro. 2008 Apr;22(3):819-26.

Effect of chromium on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in a rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus: the fat-fed, streptozotocin-treated rat.
Sahin K, Onderci M, Tuzcu M, Ustundag B, Cikim G, Ozercan IH, Sriramoju V, Juturu V, Komorowski JR.
Metabolism. 2007 Sep;56(9):1233-40.

Effect of chromium supplementation on glucose metabolism and lipids: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.
Balk EM, Tatsioni A, Lichtenstein AH, Lau J, Pittas AG.
Diabetes Care. 2007 Aug;30(8):2154-63.

Chromium picolinate and conjugated linoleic acid do not synergistically influence diet- and exercise-induced changes in body composition and health indexes in overweight women.
Diaz ML, Watkins BA, Li Y, Anderson RA, Campbell WW.
J Nutr Biochem. 2008 Jan;19(1):61-8.

Chromium picolinate supplementation in women: effects on body weight, composition, and iron status.
Lukaski HC, Siders WA, Penland JG.
Nutrition. 2007 Mar;23(3):187-95.

Chromium picolinate and biotin combination improves glucose metabolism in treated, uncontrolled overweight to obese patients with type 2 diabetes.
Albarracin CA, Fuqua BC, Evans JL, Goldfine ID.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2008 Jan-Feb;24(1):41-51.

Cinnamon - Selected References

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Hypoglycemic activity of a polyphenolic oligomer-rich extract of Cinnamomum parthenoxylon bark in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
Jia Q, Liu X, Wu X, Wang R, Hu X, Li Y, Huang C.

Antioxidant effects of a cinnamon extract in people with impaired fasting glucose that are overweight or obese.
Roussel AM, Hininger I, Benaraba R, Ziegenfuss TN, Anderson RA.
Phytomedicine. 2009 Aug;16(8):744-50.J Am Coll Nutr. 2009 Feb;28(1):16-21.

Complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
Nahas R, Moher M.
Can Fam Physician. 2009 Jun;55(6):591-6.

Changes in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity following 2 weeks of daily cinnamon ingestion in healthy humans.
Solomon TP, Blannin AK.
Eur J Appl Physiol. 2009 Apr;105(6):969-76.

Asthma and other symptoms in cinnamon workers.
Uragoda CG.
Br J Ind Med. 1984 May;41(2):224-7.

Taste and Smell Research Foundation Inc.

Coenzyme Q10 - Selected References

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Diabetes Care. 2009 May;32(5):810-2.
Coenzyme Q10 improves endothelial dysfunction in statin-treated type 2 diabetic patients.
Hamilton SJ, Chew GT, Watts GF.
Diabetes Care. 2009 May;32(5):810-2.

Supplemental ubiquinolin patients with advanced congestive heart failure.
Langsjoen PH, Langsjoen AM.
Biofactors. 2008;32(1-4):119-28.

Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of coenzyme Q10 in isolated systolic hypertension.
Burke BE, Neuenschwander R, Olson RD.
South Med J. 2001 Nov;94(11):1112-7.

Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial on symptomatic effects of coenzyme Q(10) in Parkinson disease.
Storch A, Jost WH, Vieregge P, Spiegel J, Greulich W, Durner J, Müller T, Kupsch A, Henningsen H, Oertel WH, Fuchs G, Kuhn W, Niklowitz P, Koch R, Herting B, Reichmann H; German Coenzyme Q(10) Study Group.
Arch Neurol. 2007 Jul;64(7):938-44.

A pilot clinical trial of the effects of coenzyme Q10 on chronic tinnitus aurium.
Khan M, Gross J, Haupt H, Jainz A, Niklowitz P, Scherer H, Schmidt FP, Klapp BF, Reisshauer A, Mazurek B.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2007 Jan;136(1):72-7.

Coenzyme Q10 deficiency and response to supplementation in pediatric and adolescent migraine.
Hershey AD, Powers SW, Vockell AL, Lecates SL, Ellinor PL, Segers A, Burdine D, Manning P, Kabbouche MA.
Headache. 2007 Jan;47(1):73-80.

Usefulness of coenzyme Q10 in clinical cardiology: a long-term study.
Langsjoen H, Langsjoen P, Langsjoen P, Willis R, Folkers K.
Mol Aspects Med. 1994;15 Suppl:s165-75.

Coenzyme Q(10) supplementation in infertile men with idiopathic asthenozoospermia: an open, uncontrolled pilot study.
Balercia G, Mosca F, Mantero F, Boscaro M, Mancini A, Ricciardo-Lamonica G, Littarru G.
Fertil Steril. 2004 Jan;81(1):93-8.

Role of coenzyme Q10 in chronic heart failure, angina, and hypertension.
Tran MT, Mitchell TM, Kennedy DT, Giles JT.
Pharmacotherapy. 2001 Jul;21(7):797-806.

Coenzyme Q10 improves blood pressure and glycaemic control: a controlled trial in subjects with type 2 diabetes.
Hodgson JM, Watts GF, Playford DA, Burke V, Croft KD.Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002 Nov;56(11):1137-42.

Effects of coenzyme Q10 in early Parkinson disease: evidence of slowing of the functional decline.
Shults CW, Oakes D, Kieburtz K, Beal MF, Haas R, Plumb S, Juncos JL, Nutt J, Shoulson I, Carter J, Kompoliti K, Perlmutter JS, Reich S, Stern M, Watts RL, Kurlan R, Molho E, Harrison M, Lew M; Parkinson Study Group.
Arch Neurol. 2002 Oct;59(10):1541-50.

Treatment of congestive heart failure with coenzyme Q10 illuminated by meta-analyses of clinical trials.
Soja AM, Mortensen SA.
Mol Aspects Med. 1997;18 Suppl:S159-68.

Open label trial of coenzyme Q10 as a migraine preventive.
Rozen TD, Oshinsky ML, Gebeline CA, Bradley KC, Young WB, Shechter AL, Silberstein SD.
Cephalalgia. 2002 Mar;22(2):137-41.

Coenzyme Q10 concentrations and antioxidant status in tissues of breast cancer patients.
Portakal O, Ozkaya O, Erden Inal M, Bozan B, Koşan M, Sayek I.
Clin Biochem. 2000 Jun;33(4):279-84.

Effects of coenzyme Q10 on exercise tolerance in chronic stable angina pectoris.
Kamikawa T, Kobayashi A, Yamashita T, Hayashi H, Yamazaki N.
Am J Cardiol. 1985 Aug 1;56(4):247-51.

Effects of CoQ10 supplementation on plasma lipoprotein lipid, CoQ10 and liver and muscle enzyme levels in hypercholesterolemic patients treated with atorvastatin: a randomized double-blind study.
Mabuchi H, Nohara A, Kobayashi J, Kawashiri MA, Katsuda S, Inazu A, Koizumi J; Hokuriku Lipid Research Group.
Atherosclerosis. 2007 Dec;195(2):e182-9.

Blood pressure lowering efficacy of coenzyme Q10 for primary hypertension.
Ho MJ, Bellusci A, Wright JM.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009 Oct 7;(4):CD007435.

Damiana - Selected References

Return to Damiana or Natural Remedies List or Home Page

Turnera diffusa Wild (Turneraceae) recovers sexual behavior in sexually exhausted males.
Estrada-Reyes R, Ortiz-López P, Gutiérrez-Ortíz J, Martínez-Mota L.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Jun 25;123(3):423-9.

Phytochemical investigation of Turnera diffusa.
Zhao J, Pawar RS, Ali Z, Khan IA.
J Nat Prod. 2007 Feb;70(2):289-92.

Brazilian plants as possible adaptogens: an ethnopharmacological survey of books edited in Brazil.
Mendes FR, Carlini EA.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Feb 12;109(3):493-500.

Anti-aromatase activity of the constituents from damiana (Turnera diffusa).
Zhao J, Dasmahapatra AK, Khan SI, Khan IA.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Sep 26.

Damiana - history of a herbal hoax.
Tyler VE.
Pharm Hist. 1983;25(2):55-60.

The enhancement of female sexual function with ArginMax, a nutritional supplement, among women differing in menopausal status.
Ito TY, Polan ML, Whipple B, Trant AS.
J Sex Marital Ther. 2006 Oct-Dec;32(5):369-78.
Pharmacognostic standardization of Turnera aphrodisiaca Ward.
Kumar S, Taneja R, Sharma A.
J Med Food. 2006 Summer;9(2):254-60.
Anti-anxiety activity studies of various extracts of Turnera aphrodisiaca Ward.
Kumar S, Sharma A.
J Herb Pharmacother. 2005;5(4):13-21.

Evaluation of herbal dietary supplements marketed on the internet for recreational use.
Dennehy CE, Tsourounis C, Miller AE.
Ann Pharmacother. 2005 Oct;39(10):1634-9.

Anti-anxiety Activity Studies on Homoeopathic Formulations of Turnera aphrodisiaca Ward.
Kumar S, Sharma A.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2005 Mar;2(1):117-119.

Analysis of essential oils from wild and micropropagated plants of damiana (Turnera diffusa).
Alcaraz-Melandez L, Delgado-Rodra­guez J, Real-Cosao S
Fitoterapia. 2004 Dec;75(7-8):696-701.

The effects of ArginMax, a natural dietary supplement for enhancement of male sexual function.
Ito T, Kawahara K, Das A, Strudwick W.
Hawaii Med J. 1998 Dec;57(12):741-4.

Estrogen bioassay of ginseng extract and ArginMax, a nutritional supplement for the enhancement of female sexual function.
Polan ML, Hochberg RB, Trant AS, Wuh HC.
J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2004 May;13(4):427-30.

Ethnobotany and antibacterial activity of some plants used in traditional medicine of Zapotitlan de las Salinas, Puebla (Mexico).
Hernandez T, Canales M, Avila JG, Duran A, Caballero J, Romo de Vivar A, Lira R.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2003 Oct;88(2-3):181-8.

A review of plant-derived and herbal approaches to the treatment of sexual dysfunctions.
Rowland DL, Tai W.
J Sex Marital Ther. 2003 May-Jun;29(3):185-205.
Investigation on the hypoglycaemic effects of extracts of four Mexican medicinal plants in normal and alloxan-diabetic mice.
Alarcon-Aguilar FJ, Roman-Ramos R, Flores-Saenz JL, Aguirre-Garcia F.
Phytother Res. 2002 Jun;16(4):383-6.

A double-blind placebo-controlled study of ArginMax, a nutritional supplement for enhancement of female sexual function.
Ito TY, Trant AS, Polan ML.
J Sex Marital Ther. 2001 Oct-Dec;27(5):541-9.

Weight loss and delayed gastric emptying following a South American herbal preparation in overweight patients.
Andersen T, Fogh J.
J Hum Nutr Diet. 2001 Jun;14(3):243-50.
Stimulating property of Turnera diffusa and Pfaffia paniculata extracts on the sexual-behavior of male rats.
Arletti R, Benelli A, Cavazzuti E, Scarpetta G, Bertolini A.
Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1999 Mar;143(1):15-9.

Study of the anti-hyperglycemic effect of plants used as antidiabetics.
Alarcon-Aguilara FJ, Roman-Ramos R, Perez-Gutierrez S, Aguilar-Contreras A,Contreras-Weber CC, Flores-Saenz JL.
J Ethnopharmacol. 1998 Jun;61(2):101-10.

Damiana
Lowry TP.
J Psychoactive Drugs. 1984 Jul-Sep;16(3):267-8.

 

DASH Diet Guidelines - Selected References

Return to DASH Diet Guidelines or Natural Remedies List or Home Page

Your Guide to Lowering Your Blood Pressure with DASH, National Institutes of Health

Effects of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Diet, Exercise, and Caloric Restriction on Neurocognition in Overweight Adults With High Blood Pressure.
Smith PJ, Blumenthal JA, Babyak MA, Craighead L, Welsh-Bohmer KA, Browndyke JN, Strauman TA, Sherwood A.
Hypertension. 2010 Mar 19.

Association between a DASH-like diet and mortality in adults with hypertension: findings from a population-based follow-up study.
Parikh A, Lipsitz SR, Natarajan S.
Am J Hypertens. 2009 Apr;22(4):409-16.

DASH lowers blood pressure in obese hypertensives beyond potassium, magnesium and fibre.
Al-Solaiman Y, Jesri A, Mountford WK, Lackland DT, Zhao Y, Egan BM.
J Hum Hypertens.2010 Apr;24(4):237-46.

DASH-style diet associates with reduced risk for kidney stones.
Taylor EN, Fung TT, Curhan GC.
J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009 Oct;20(10):2253-9.

Low-sodium Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension-type diet including lean red meat lowers blood pressure in postmenopausal women.
Nowson CA, Wattanapenpaiboon N, Pachett A.
Nutr Res. 2009 Jan;29(1):8-18.

Low-Sodium DASH reduces oxidative stress and improves vascular function in salt-sensitive humans.
Al-Solaiman Y, Jesri A, Zhao Y, Morrow JD, Egan BM.
J Hum Hypertens.2009 Dec;23(12):826-35.

Adherence to the DASH Diet is inversely associated with incidence of type 2 diabetes: the insulin resistance atherosclerosis study.
Liese AD, Nichols M, Sun X, D'Agostino RB Jr, Haffner SM.
Diabetes Care. 2009 Aug;32(8):1434-6.

Consistency with the DASH diet and incidence of heart failure.
Levitan EB, Wolk A, Mittleman MA.
Arch Intern Med.2009 May 11;169(9):851-7.

DHEA - Selected References

Return to DHEA or Natural Remedies List or Home Page

The safety of 52 weeks of oral DHEA therapy for postmenopausal women.
Panjari M, Bell RJ, Jane F, Adams J, Morrow C, Davis SR.
Maturitas. 2009 Jul 20;63(3):240-5.

Al-Harithy RN.
Dehydroepiandrosterone [ DHEA ] sulfate levels in women. Relationships with body mass index, insulin and glucose levels.
Saudi Med J. 2003 Aug;24(8):837-41.

Reiter WJ, Pycha A, Schatzl G, Pokorny A, Gruber DM, Huber JC, Marberger M.
Dehydroepiandrosterone in the treatment of erectile dysfunction: a prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.
Urology. 1999 Mar;53(3):590-4; discussion 594-5.

Reiter WJ, Pycha A, Schatzl G, Klingler HC, Märk I, Auterith A, Marberger M.
Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate concentrations in men with erectile dysfunction.
Urology. 2000 May;55(5):755-8.

van Vollenhoven RF, Engleman EG, McGuire JL.
Dehydroepiandrosterone in systemic lupus erythematosus. Results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial.
Arthritis Rheum. 1995 Dec;38(12):1826-31.

Grimley Evans J, Malouf R, Huppert F, van Niekerk JK.
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation for cognitive function in healthy elderly people.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Oct 18;(4):CD006221.

Basu, R Man CD, Campioni M, et al.
Two years of treatment with dehydroepiandrosterone does not improve insulin secretion, insulin action, or postprandial glucose turnover in elderly men or women.
Diabetes 2007 Mar; 56 (3): 753-766.

Petri MA, Mease PJ, Merrill JT, Lahita RG, Iannini MJ, Yocum DE, Ginzler EM, Katz RS, Gluck OS, Genovese MC, Van Vollenhoven R, Kalunian KC, Manzi S, Greenwald MW, Buyon JP, Olsen NJ, Schiff MH, Kavanaugh AF, Caldwell JR, Ramsey-Goldman R, St Clair EW, Goldman AL, Egan RM, Polisson RP, Moder KG, Rothfield NF, Spencer RT, Hobbs K, Fessler BJ, Calabrese LH, Moreland LW, Cohen SB, Quarles BJ, Strand V, Gurwith M, Schwartz KE.
Effects of prasterone on disease activity and symptoms in women with active systemic lupus erythematosus.
Arthritis Rheum. 2004 Sep;50(9):2858-68.

Villareal DT, Holloszy JO.
Effect of DHEA on abdominal fat and insulin action in elderly women and men: a randomized controlled trial.
JAMA. 2004 Nov 10;292(18):2243-8.

Stomati M, Monteleone P, Casarosa E, Quirici B, Puccetti S, Bernardi F, Genazzani AD, Rovati L, Luisi M, Genazzani AR.
Six-month oral dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation in early and late postmenopause.
Gynecol Endocrinol. 2000 Oct;14(5):342-63.

Hackbert L, Heiman JR.
Acute dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) effects on sexual arousal in postmenopausal women.
J Womens Health Gend Based Med. 2002 Mar;11(2):155-62.

Finckh A, Berner IC, Aubry-Rozier B, et al.
A randomized controlld trial of dehydroepianodrosterone in postmenopausal women with fibromyalgia.
J Rheumatology 2005 July;32 (7): 1336-1340

Meston CM, Heiman JR.
Acute dehydroepiandrosterone effects on sexual arousal in premenopausal women.
J Sex Marital Ther. 2002 Jan-Feb;28(1):53-60.

DMSO - Selected References

Return to DMSO or Natural Remedies List or Home Page

Al-Harithy RN.
Dehydroepiandrosterone [ DHEA ] sulfate levels in women. Relationships with body mass index, insulin and glucose levels.
Saudi Med J. 2003 Aug;24(8):837-41.

Reiter WJ, Pycha A, Schatzl G, Pokorny A, Gruber DM, Huber JC, Marberger M.
Dehydroepiandrosterone in the treatment of erectile dysfunction: a prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.
Urology. 1999 Mar;53(3):590-4; discussion 594-5.

Reiter WJ, Pycha A, Schatzl G, Klingler HC, Märk I, Auterith A, Marberger M.
Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate concentrations in men with erectile dysfunction.
Urology. 2000 May;55(5):755-8.

van Vollenhoven RF, Engleman EG, McGuire JL.
Dehydroepiandrosterone in systemic lupus erythematosus. Results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial.
Arthritis Rheum. 1995 Dec;38(12):1826-31.

Grimley Evans J, Malouf R, Huppert F, van Niekerk JK.
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation for cognitive function in healthy elderly people.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Oct 18;(4):CD006221.

Basu, R Man CD, Campioni M, et al.
Two years of treatment with dehydroepiandrosterone does not improve insulin secretion, insulin action, or postprandial glucose turnover in elderly men or women.
Diabetes 2007 Mar; 56 (3): 753-766.

Petri MA, Mease PJ, Merrill JT, Lahita RG, Iannini MJ, Yocum DE, Ginzler EM, Katz RS, Gluck OS, Genovese MC, Van Vollenhoven R, Kalunian KC, Manzi S, Greenwald MW, Buyon JP, Olsen NJ, Schiff MH, Kavanaugh AF, Caldwell JR, Ramsey-Goldman R, St Clair EW, Goldman AL, Egan RM, Polisson RP, Moder KG, Rothfield NF, Spencer RT, Hobbs K, Fessler BJ, Calabrese LH, Moreland LW, Cohen SB, Quarles BJ, Strand V, Gurwith M, Schwartz KE.
Effects of prasterone on disease activity and symptoms in women with active systemic lupus erythematosus.
Arthritis Rheum. 2004 Sep;50(9):2858-68.

Villareal DT, Holloszy JO.
Effect of DHEA on abdominal fat and insulin action in elderly women and men: a randomized controlled trial.
JAMA. 2004 Nov 10;292(18):2243-8.

Stomati M, Monteleone P, Casarosa E, Quirici B, Puccetti S, Bernardi F, Genazzani AD, Rovati L, Luisi M, Genazzani AR.
Six-month oral dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation in early and late postmenopause.
Gynecol Endocrinol. 2000 Oct;14(5):342-63.

Hackbert L, Heiman JR.
Acute dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) effects on sexual arousal in postmenopausal women.
J Womens Health Gend Based Med. 2002 Mar;11(2):155-62.

Finckh A, Berner IC, Aubry-Rozier B, et al.
A randomized controlld trial of dehydroepianodrosterone in postmenopausal women with fibromyalgia.
J Rheumatology 2005 July;32 (7): 1336-1340

Meston CM, Heiman JR.
Acute dehydroepiandrosterone effects on sexual arousal in premenopausal women.
J Sex Marital Ther. 2002 Jan-Feb;28(1):53-60.

Echinacea - Selected References

Return to Echinacea or Natural Remedies List or Home Page

Echinacea/sage or chlorhexidine/lidocaine for treating acute sore throats: a randomized double-blind trial.
Schapowal A, Berger D, Klein P, Suter A.
Eur J Med Res. 2009 Sep 1;14(9):406-12.

Echinacea purpurea and osteopathic manipulative treatment in children with recurrent otitis media: a randomized controlled trial.
Wahl RA, Aldous MB, Worden KA, Grant KL.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2008 Oct 2;8:56.

Effects of echinacea on the frequency of upper respiratory tract symptoms: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
O'Neil J, Hughes S, Lourie A, Zweifler J.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2008 Apr;100(4):384-8.

The effect of 4 wk of oral echinacea supplementation on serum erythropoietin and indices of erythropoietic status.
Whitehead MT, Martin TD, Scheett TP, Webster MJ.
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2007 Aug;17(4):378-90.

Effects of echinacea on electrocardiographic and blood pressure measurements.
Shah SA, Schlesselman L, Cios D, Lipeika J, Patel AA, Kluger J, White CM.
Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2007 Aug 1;64(15):1615-8.

Echinacea Plant Image: Ulf Eliasson, GNU Free Documentation License

Fish Oil - Selected References

Return to Fish Oil or Natural Remedies List or Home Page

Dietary Fatty Acids and the 10-Year Incidence of Age-Related Macular DegenerationJennifer S. L. Tan, MBBS, BE; Jie Jin Wang, MMed, PhD; Victoria Flood, MPH, PhD; Paul Mitchell, MD, PhDArch Ophthalmol. 2009;127(5):656-665.

Effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in patients with chronic heart failure (the GISSI-HF trial): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
Lancet. 2008 Aug 29
Gissi-Hf Investigators

Effect of rosuvastatin in patients with chronic heart failure (the GISSI-HF trial): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
Lancet. 2008 Aug 29
Gissi-Hf Investigators

Omega-3 Fatty Acid supplementation for the prevention of arrhythmias.
Chung MK.
Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med. 2008 Sep;10(5):398-407.

Dietary (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids inhibit ischemia andreperfusion arrhythmias and infarction in rat heart not enhanced by ischemicpreconditioning.
Abdukeyum GG, Owen AJ, McLennan PL.
J Nutr. 2008 Oct;138(10):1902-9.

Plasma Omega-3 Fatty Acid Response to a Fish Oil Supplement in the HealthyElderly.
Vandal M, Freemantle E, Tremblay-Mercier J, Plourde M, Fortier M, Bruneau J,Gagnon J, Bagin M, Cunnane SC.
Lipids. 2008 Sep 16.

The effect of supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on markersof oxidative stress in elderly exposed to PM(2.5).
Romieu I, Garcia-Esteban R, Sunyer J, Rios C, Alcaraz-Zubeldia M, Velasco SR,Holguin F.
Environ Health Perspect. 2008 Sep;116(9):1237-42.

Benefits of fish oil supplementation in hyperlipidemia: a systematic review andmeta-analysis.
Eslick GD, Howe PR, Smith C, Priest R, Bensoussan A.
Int J Cardiol. 2008 Sep 5.

Secrets of the Mediterranean diet [Article in Hebrew]
Farah R, Glick Y, Farah R.
Harefuah. 2008 May;147(5):422-7, 477.

Supplementing milk replacer with omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil onimmunocompetence and health of Jersey calves.
Ballou MA, DePeters EJ.
J Dairy Sci. 2008 Sep;91(9):3488-500.

Behavioral effects of omega-3 Fatty Acid supplementation in young adults withsevere autism: an open label study.
Politi P, Cena H, Comelli M, Marrone G, Allegri C, Emanuele E, Ucelli di Nemi S.
Arch Med Res. 2008 Oct;39(7):682-5.

The impact of fish-oil supplements on insulin sensitivity.
Waite N, Lodge J, Hart K, Robertson D, Badley E, Burton S.
J Hum Nutr Diet. 2008 Jul 15;21(4):402-403.

Clinical studies on the hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of selected naturalsubstances.
Kajaba I, Simoncic R, Frecerova K, Belay G.
Bratisl Lek Listy. 2008;109(6):267-72.

Oily fish consumption, dietary docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acidintakes, and associations with neovascular age-related macular degeneration.
Augood C, Chakravarthy U, Young I, Vioque J, de Jong PT, Bentham G, Rahu M
Bratisl Lek Listy. 2008;109(6):267-72.

Fatty acids and neurodevelopment.
Belkind-Gerson J, Carrean-Rodra­guez A, Contreras-Ochoa CO, Estrada-Mondaca S,Parra-Cabrera MS.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2008 Aug;47 Suppl 1:S7-9.

Food factors for atherosclerosis prevention: Asian perspective derived fromanalyses of worldwide dietary biomarkers.
Yamori Y.
Exp Clin Cardol. 2006 Summer;11(2):94-8.

Herring ( Clupea harengus) intake influences lipoproteins but not inflammatoryand oxidation markers in overweight men.
Lindqvist HM, Langkilde AM, Undeland I, Sandberg AS.
Br J Nutr. 2008 Jul 18:1-8.

Fish oil fed prior to ethanol administration prevents acute ethanol-induced fattyliver in mice.
Wada S, Yamazaki T, Kawano Y, Miura S, Ezaki O.
J Hepatol. 2008 Sep;49(3):441-50.

Blood concentrations of individual long-chain n-3 fatty acids and risk ofnonfatal myocardial infarction.
Sun Q, Ma J, Campos H, Rexrode KM, Albert CM, Mozaffarian D, Hu FB.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Jul;88(1):216-23.

Simvastatin vs therapeutic lifestyle changes and supplements: randomized primary prevention trial.
Becker DJ, Gordon RY, Morris PB, Yorko J, Gordon YJ, Li M, Iqbal N.
Mayo Clin Proc. 2008 Jul;83(7):758-64.

Alpha-linolenic acid and risk of nonfatal acute myocardial infarction.
Campos H, Baylin A, Willett WC.
Circulation. 2008 Jul 22;118(4):339-45.

The content of favorable and unfavorable polyunsaturated fatty acids [ fish oil ] found incommonly eaten fish.
Weaver KL, Ivester P, Chilton JA, Wilson MD, Pandey P, Chilton FH.
J Am Diet Assoc. 2008 Jul;108(7):1178-85.

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids [ fish oil ] in the treatment of schizophrenia.
Peet M.
Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci. 2008;45(1):19-25.

The relevance of the Heart Foundation of Australia's dietary recommendations for adult Australians: a comparison of views of general practitioners, cardiologists and dietitians.
Pomeroy S, Worsley A.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17(2):290-6.

Lipid-altering therapy and atrial fibrillation.
Bachmann JM, Majmudar M, Tompkins C, Blumenthal RS, Marine JE.
Cardiol Rev. 2008 Jul-Aug;16(4):197-204.

Effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplements on serum lipids, apolipoproteins andmalondialdehyde in type 2 diabetes patients.
Shidfar F, Keshavarz A, Hosseyni S, Ameri A, Yarahmadi S.
East Mediterr Health J. 2008 Mar-Apr;14(2):305-13.

Conclusions and recommendations from the symposium, Beyond Cholesterol:Prevention and Treatment of Coronary Heart Disease with n-3 Fatty Acids.
Deckelbaum RJ, Leaf A, Mozaffarian D, Jacobson TA, Harris WS, Akabas SR.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Jun;87(6):2010S-2S.

Fish and n-3 fatty acids for the prevention of fatal coronary heart disease andsudden cardiac death.
Mozaffarian D.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Jun;87(6):1991S-6S.

Role of n-3 fatty acids [ fish oil ] in the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia andcardiovascular disease.
Jacobson TA.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Jun;87(6):1981S-90S.

Historical overview of n-3 fatty acids and coronary heart disease.
Leaf A.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Jun;87(6):1978S-80S.

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor [alpha] genetic variation interactswith n-6 and long-chain n-3 fatty acid intake to affect total cholesterol andLDL-cholesterol concentrations in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.
Volcik KA, Nettleton JA, Ballantyne CM, Boerwinkle E.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Jun;87(6):1926-31.

Update on alpha-linolenic acid.
Stark AH, Crawford MA, Reifen R.
Nutr Rev. 2008 Jun;66(6):326-32.

Complementary medicine for psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents.
Soh NL, Walter G.
Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2008 Jul;21(4):350-5.

Functional foods for cardiovascular disease in women.
Rudkowska I.
Menopause Int. 2008 Jun;14(2):63-9.

Dietary manipulation in musculoskeletal conditions.
Rayman MP, Pattison DJ.
Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2008 Jun;22(3):535-61.

Red blood cell omega-3 fatty acids [ fish oil ] and the risk of ventricular arrhythmias inpatients with heart failure.
Wilhelm M, Tobias R, Asskali F, Kraehner R, Kuly S, Klinghammer L, Boehles H,Daniel WG.
Am Heart J. 2008 Jun;155(6):971-7.

Omega-3: from cod-liver oil to nutrigenomics [Article in Italian]
Caramia G.
Minerva Pediatr. 2008 Aug;60(4):443-55.

The other side of the coin: Beneficiary effect of omega-3 fatty acids in suddenunexpected death in epilepsy.
Scorza FA, Cysneiros RM, Arida RM, Terra-Bustamante VC, de Albuquerque M,Cavalheiro EA.
Epilepsy Behav. 2008 Aug;13(2):279-83.

Nutrition 101: physicians can no longer ignore the healing power of diet andnutritional supplements.
O'Keefe JH.
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2008 Jun;6(5):593-6.

Hypertriglyceridemia and cardiovascular disease management.
Codario RA.
J Am Acad Nurse Pract. 2007;19(12 Suppl 2):7-10, 13-4.

Effects of n-3 fatty acids on autoimmunity and osteoporosis.
Fernandes G, Bhattacharya A, Rahman M, Zaman K, Banu J.
Front Biosci. 2008 May 1;13:4015-20.

N-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids [ fish oil ] for optimal function during braindevelopment and ageing.
Dangour AD, Uauy R.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17 Suppl 1:185-8.

The omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio, genetic variation, and cardiovasculardisease.
Simopoulos AP.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17 Suppl 1:131-4.

The lipid-lowering effects of phytosterols and (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids are synergistic and complementary in hyperlipidemic men and women.
Micallef MA, Garg ML.
J Nutr. 2008 Jun;138(6):1086-90.

Identification of potential serum biomarkers of inflammation and lipid modulationthat are altered by fish oil supplementation in healthy volunteers.
de Roos B, Geelen A, Ross K, Rucklidge G, Reid M, Duncan G, Caslake M, Horgan G, Brouwer IA.
Proteomics. 2008 May;8(10):1965-74.

Inclusion of fish or fish oil in weight-loss diets for young adults: effects onblood lipids.
Gunnarsdottir I, Tomasson H, Kiely M, Martinéz JA, Bandarra NM, Morais MG,Thorsdottir I.
Int J Obes (Lond). 2008 Jul;32(7):1105-12.

Multi-targeted therapy of cancer by omega-3 fatty acids [ fish oil ].
Berquin IM, Edwards IJ, Chen YQ.
Cancer Lett. 2008 Oct 8;269(2):363-77.

Dietary fish oil results in a greater bone mass and bone formation indices inaged ovariectomized rats.
Matsushita H, Barrios JA, Shea JE, Miller SC.
J Bone Miner Metab. 2008;26(3):241-7.

Correlation between changes in blood fatty acid composition and visual sustained attention performance in children with inattention: effect of dietary n-3 fattyacids containing phospholipids.
Vaisman N, Kaysar N, Zaruk-Adasha Y, Pelled D, Brichon G, Zwingelstein G,Bodennec J.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 May;87(5):1170-80.

Plasma eicosapentaenoic acid is inversely associated with severity of depressive symptomatology in the elderly: data from the Bordeaux sample of the Three-CityStudy.
Féart C, Peuchant E, Letenneur L, Samieri C, Montagnier D, Fourrier-Reglat A,Barberger-Gateau P.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 May;87(5):1156-62.

A comparison of fish oil, flaxseed oil and hempseed oil supplementation onselected parameters of cardiovascular health in healthy volunteers.
Kaul N, Kreml R, Austria JA, Richard MN, Edel AL, Dibrov E, Hirono S, Zettler ME,Pierce GN.
J Am Coll Nutr. 2008 Feb;27(1):51-8.

Fish liver oil and propolis as protective natural products against the effect of the anti-epileptic drug valproate on immunological markers of bone formation inrats.
Elwakkad AS, El Elshamy KA, Sibaii H.
Epilepsy Res. 2008 Jul;80(1):47-56.

Low n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio, with fish- or flaxseed oil, in a high fat dietimproves plasma lipids and beneficially alters tissue fatty acid composition inmice.
Riediger ND, Othman R, Fitz E, Pierce GN, Suh M, Moghadasian MH.
Eur J Nutr. 2008 Apr;47(3):153-60.

The essential fatty acids omega-6 and omega-3: from their discovery to their usein therapy [Article in Italian]
Caramia G.
Minerva Pediatr. 2008 Apr;60(2):219-33.

Identification of inflammatory and proresolving lipid mediators in bone marrowand their lipidomic profiles with ovariectomy and omega-3 intake.
Poulsen RC, Gotlinger KH, Serhan CN, Kruger MC.
Am J Hematol. 2008 Jun;83(6):437-45.

The importance of the omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio in cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases.
Simopoulos AP.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2008 Jun;233(6):674-88.

Maternal n-3, n-6, and trans fatty acid profile early in pregnancy and term birthweight: a prospective cohort study.
van Eijsden M, Hornstra G, van der Wal MF, Vrijkotte TG, Bonsel GJ.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Apr;87(4):887-95.

Diet and the metabolic syndrome.
Esposito K, Ceriello A, Giugliano D.
Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2007 Dec;5(4):291-6.

Omega-3 fatty acids for major depressive disorder during pregnancy: results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
Su KP, Huang SY, Chiu TH, Huang KC, Huang CL, Chang HC, Pariante CM.
J Clin Psychiatry. 2008 Apr;69(4):644-51.

New approaches to therapy with omega-3 fatty acids.
Kakar P, Watson T, Lip GY.
Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2008 Feb;10(1):79-87.

Effect of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid [ fish oil ] on inflammation mediatorsduring osteoblastogenesis.
Shen CL, Peterson J, Tatum OL, Dunn DM.
J Med Food. 2008 Mar;11(1):105-10.

Diet among Japanese female university students and asthmatic symptoms,infections, pollen and furry pet allergy.
Takaoka M, Norback D.
Respir Med. 2008 Jul;102(7):1045-54.

Docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids increase neuronal death in response toHuPrP82-146 and Abeta 1-42.
Bate C, Marshall V, Colombo L, Diomede L, Salmona M, Williams A.
Neuropharmacology. 2008 May;54(6):934-43.

Maternal fish intake during pregnancy, blood mercury levels, and child cognition at age 3 years in a US cohort.
Oken E, Radesky JS, Wright RO, Bellinger DC, Amarasiriwardena CJ, Kleinman KP, HuH, Gillman MW.
Am J Epidemiol. 2008 May 15;167(10):1171-81.

Evaluation of benefits and risks related to seafood consumption.
Sioen I, De Henauw S, Van Camp J.
Verh K Acad Geneeskd Belg. 2007;69(5-6):249-89.

Are functional foods redefining nutritional requirements?
Jones PJ, Varady KA.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2008 Feb;33(1):118-23.

Mechanisms by which docosahexaenoic acid and related fatty acids reduce coloncancer risk and inflammatory disorders of the intestine.
Chapkin RS, Seo J, McMurray DN, Lupton JR.
Chem Phys Lipids. 2008 May;153(1):14-23.

Anticancer properties of oxidation products of docosahexaenoic acid.
Siddiqui RA, Harvey K, Stillwell W.
Chem Phys Lipids. 2008 May;153(1):47-56.

Towards health-promoting and environmentally friendly regional diets - a Nordicexample.
Bere E, Brug J.
Public Health Nutr. 2008 Mar 14:1-6.

Nutritional biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease: the association betweencarotenoids, n-3 fatty acids, and dementia severity.
Wang W, Shinto L, Connor WE, Quinn JF.
J Alzheimers Dis. 2008 Feb;13(1):31-8.

Omega-3 fatty acid [ fish oil ] supplementation and total homocysteine levels in end-stagerenal disease patients.
Beavers KM, Beavers DP, Bowden RG, Wilson RL, Gentile M.
Nephrology (Carlton). 2008 Jun;13(4):284-8.

From homicide to happiness--a commentary on omega-3 fatty acids in human society.Cleave Award Lecture.
Hibbeln JR.
Nutr Health. 2007;19(1-2):9-19.

Mediterranean-type diet and risk of preterm birth among women in the NorwegianMother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa): a prospective cohort study.
Haugen M, Meltzer HM, Brantsaeter AL, Mikkelsen T, Osterdal ML, Alexander J,Olsen SF, Bakketeig L.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2008;87(3):319-24.

Very low n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status in Austrian vegetariansand vegans.
Kornsteiner M, Singer I, Elmadfa I.
Ann Nutr Metab. 2008;52(1):37-47.

A systematic review of the impact of n-3 fatty acids in bone health andosteoporosis.
Salari P, Rezaie A, Larijani B, Abdollahi M.
Med Sci Monit. 2008 Mar;14(3):RA37-44.

Pharmaconutrition: a new emerging paradigm.
Jones NE, Heyland DK.
Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2008 Mar;24(2):215-22.

Fatty acid status and behavioural symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivitydisorder in adolescents: a case-control study.
Colter AL, Cutler C, Meckling KA.
Nutr J. 2008 Feb 14;7:8.

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) for type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Hartweg J, Perera R, Montori V, Dinneen S, Neil HA, Farmer A.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Jan 23;(1):CD003205.

Comparison of therapeutic effects of omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid andfluoxetine, separately and in combination, in major depressive disorder.
Jazayeri S, Tehrani-Doost M, Keshavarz SA, Hosseini M, Djazayery A, Amini H,Jalali M, Peet M.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2008 Mar;42(3):192-8.

Excess and deficient omega-3 fatty acid during pregnancy and lactation causeimpaired neural transmission in rat pups.
Church MW, Jen KL, Dowhan LM, Adams BR, Hotra JW.
Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2008 Mar-Apr;30(2):107-17.

Dietary strategies for improving post-prandial glucose, lipids, inflammation, andcardiovascular health.
O'Keefe JH, Gheewala NM, O'Keefe JO.
J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008 Jan 22;51(3):249-55.

Association of fatty acids in serum phospholipids with lung function andbronchial hyperresponsiveness in adults.
Kompauer I, Demmelmair H, Koletzko B, Bolte G, Linseisen J, Heinrich J.
Eur J Epidemiol. 2008;23(3):175-90.

A high-fat meal enriched with eicosapentaenoic acid reduces postprandial arterialstiffness measured by digital volume pulse analysis in healthy men.
Hall WL, Sanders KA, Sanders TA, Chowienczyk PJ.
J Nutr. 2008 Feb;138(2):287-91.

How relevant is the ratio of dietary n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids tocardiovascular disease risk? Evidence from the OPTILIP study.
Griffin BA.
Curr Opin Lipidol. 2008 Feb;19(1):57-62.

Should patients with cardiovascular disease take fish oil?
Nair GM, Connolly SJ.
CMAJ. 2008 Jan 15;178(2):181-2.

Effects of nutritional supplementation with antioxidant vitamins and minerals andfish oil on antioxidant status and psychosocial stress in smokers: an open trial.
Nitta H, Kinoyama M, Watanabe A, Shirao K, Kihara H, Arai M.
Clin Exp Med. 2007 Dec;7(4):179-83.

The roles of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in pregnancy, lactation andinfancy: review of current knowledge and consensus recommendations.
Koletzko B, Lien E, Agostoni C, Bahles H, Campoy C, Cetin I, Decsi T, DudenhausenJW, Dupont C, Forsyth S, Hoesli I, Holzgreve W, Lapillonne A, Putet G, Secher NJ,Symonds M, Szajewska H, Willatts P, Uauy R; World Association of PerinatalMedicine Dietary Guidelines Working Group.
J Perinat Med. 2008;36(1):5-14.

Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation decreases remnant-like particle-cholesterol and increases the (n-3) index in hypertriglyceridemic men.
Kelley DS, Siegel D, Vemuri M, Chung GH, Mackey BE.
J Nutr. 2008 Jan;138(1):30-5.

Garlic - Selected References

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In vitro evaluation of the amoebicidal activity of Allium sativum extract on Acanthamoeba castellanii and its cytotoxic potential on corneal cells.
J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2008 Feb;24(1):8-14.

Contact dermatitis due to Allium sativum and Ranunculus illyricus: two cases.
Contact Dermatitis. 2007 Oct;57(4):279-80.

Herbal use among cancer patients during palliative or curative chemotherapy treatment in Norway.
Support Care Cancer. 2008 Jul;16(7):763-9.

Comparative effects of dietary ginger (Zingiber officinale) and Allium sativum investigated in a type 2 diabetes model of rats.
J Med Food. 2008 Mar;11(1):152-9.

Effect of garlic on blood pressure: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2008 Jun 16;8(1):13.

Onion and garlic extracts lessen cadmium-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.
Biometals. 2008 Jun 3.

Garlic allyl derivatives interact with membrane lipids to modify the membrane fluidity.
J Biomed Sci. 2008 May 28.

Anticancer effects of diallyl trisulfide derived from garlic.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17 Suppl 1:249-52.

Biological and chemical stability of garlic-derived allicin.
J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Jun 11;56(11):4229-35. Epub 2008 May 20.

Effects of garlic consumption on plasma and erythrocyte antioxidant parameters in elderly subjects.
Gerontology. 2008;54(3):173-6.

Effects of short-term garlic supplementation on lipid metabolism and antioxidant status in hypertensive adults.
Pharmacol Rep. 2008 Mar-Apr;60(2):163-70.

Garlic burns: Case reports with an emphasis on associated and underlying pathology.
Burns. 2008 Apr 10.

Hypoglycemic effect of aqueous shallot and garlic extracts in rats with fructose-induced insulin resistance.J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2007 Nov;41(3):218-23.

Effects of garlic on cholesterol: not down but not out either.
Arch Intern Med. 2008 Jan 14;168(1):111-2

Onion and garlic intake and the odds of benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Urology. 2007 Oct;70(4):672-6.

The atherosclerotic heart disease and protecting properties of garlic: contemporary data.
Mol Nutr Food Res. 2007 Nov;51(11):1365-81.

Garlic as an anti-fatigue agent.
Mol Nutr Food Res. 2007 Nov;51(11):1329-34.

Is garlic a promising food for benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer?
Mol Nutr Food Res. 2007 Nov;51(11):1319-23.

Preventive effects of diallyl sulfide on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene induced DNA alkylation damage in mouse skin.
Mol Nutr Food Res. 2007 Nov;51(11):1324-8.

Does garlic have a role as an antidiabetic agent?
Mol Nutr Food Res. 2007 Nov;51(11):1353-64.

Clinical effectiveness of garlic (Allium sativum).
Mol Nutr Food Res. 2007 Nov;51(11):1382-5.

Garlic (Allium sativum L.): adverse effects and drug interactions in humans.
Mol Nutr Food Res. 2007 Nov;51(11):1386-97.

Does garlic reduce risk of colorectal cancer? A systematic review.
J Nutr. 2007 Oct;137(10):2264-9.

Garlic, vitamin, and antibiotic treatment for Helicobacter pylori: a randomized factorial controlled trial.
Helicobacter. 2007 Oct;12(5):575-8.

The effect of garlic on cyclosporine-a-induced hyperlipidemia in male rats.
Urol J. 2005 Summer;2(3):153-6.

Allium sativum constituents: effect on free radical generation from rat neutrophils.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2007 May 30;53(5):63-7.

Treatment choices of hypertensive patients in Turkey.
Behav Med. 2007 Spring;33(1):5-10.

Diet and cancer prevention: where we are, where we are going.
Nutr Cancer. 2006;56(2):225-31.

Antimicrobial activity of garlic against oral streptococci.
Int J Dent Hyg. 2007 May;5(2):109-15.

Dietary supplements for the prevention and treatment of coronary artery disease.
J Altern Complement Med. 2007 Jan-Feb;13(1):83-95.

The inhibitory effect of garlic (Allium sativum) on growth of some microorganisms.
J Egypt Public Health Assoc. 2003;78(5-6):361-72.

Antithrombotic effects of odorless garlic powder both in vitro and in vivo.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2007 Jan;71(1):84-90. Epub 2007 Jan 7.

Black grape and garlic extracts protect against cyclosporine a nephrotoxicity.
Immunol Invest. 2007;36(1):105-14.

Effect of garlic powder on C-reactive protein and plasma lipids in overweight and smoking subjects.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Dec;84(6):1324-9

Study of the effects of raw garlic consumption on the level of lipids and other blood biochemical factors in hyperlipidemic individuals.
Pak J Pharm Sci. 2006 Oct;19(4):295-8.

Onion and garlic use and human cancer.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Nov;84(5):1027-32.

Complementary and alternative therapies for the management of dyslipidemia.
Ann Pharmacother. 2006 Nov;40(11):1984-92.

Health benefits of herbs and spices: the past, the present, the future.
Med J Aust. 2006 Aug 21;185(4 Suppl):S4-24.

Garlic for preventing pre-eclampsia and its complications.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Jul 19;3:CD006065.

The antioxidant properties of garlic compounds: allyl cysteine, alliin, allicin, and allyl disulfide.
J Med Food. 2006 Summer;9(2):205-13.

Cancer chemoprevention with garlic and its constituents.
Cancer Lett. 2007 Mar 18;247(2):167-81.

Anticoagulant modulation of blood cells and platelet reactivity by garlic oil in experimental diabetes mellitus.
Biosci Rep. 2006 Feb;26(1):1-6.

Allicin in garlic protects against coronary endothelial dysfunction and right heart hypertrophy in pulmonary hypertensive rats.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2006 Nov;291(5):H2431-8.

Dose-dependent influence of commercial garlic (Allium sativum) on rats fed cholesterol-containing diet.
J Agric Food Chem. 2006 May 31;54(11):4022-7.

Effect of oral administration of crude aqueous extract of garlic on pharmacokinetic parameters of isoniazid and rifampicin in rabbits.
Pharmacology. 2006;77(2):100-4.

Aged garlic extract ameliorates physical fatigue.Biol Pharm Bull. 2006 May;29(5):962-6.

Antimalarial activity of allicin, a biologically active compound from garlic cloves.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006 May;50(5):1731-7.

Effect of aged garlic extract against methotrexate-induced damage to the small intestine in rats.
Phytother Res. 2006 Jun;20(6):504-10.

Protective effects of garlic sulfur compounds against DNA damage induced by direct- and indirect-acting genotoxic agents in HepG2 cells.
Food Chem Toxicol. 2006 Jun;44(6):827-34.

The antiatherogenic effect of allicin: possible mode of action.
Pathobiology. 2005;72(6):325-34.

Aged garlic extract has chemopreventative effects on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon tumors in rats.
J Nutr. 2006 Mar;136(3 Suppl):847S-851S.

Aged garlic extract inhibits angiogenesis and proliferation of colorectal carcinoma cells.
J Nutr. 2006 Mar;136(3 Suppl):842S-846S.

Aged garlic extract prevents a decline of NK cell number and activity in patients with advanced cancer.
J Nutr. 2006 Mar;136(3 Suppl):816S-820S.

Aged garlic extract has potential suppressive effect on colorectal adenomas in humans.
J Nutr. 2006 Mar;136(3 Suppl):821S-826S.

Garlic reduces dementia and heart-disease risk.
J Nutr. 2006 Mar;136(3 Suppl):810S-812S.

Aged garlic extract is a potential therapy for sickle-cell anemia.
J Nutr. 2006 Mar;136(3 Suppl):803S-805S.

cluding garlic in the diet may help lower blood glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides.
J Nutr. 2006 Mar;136(3 Suppl):800S-802S.

Aged garlic extract may be safe for patients on warfarin therapy.
J Nutr. 2006 Mar;136(3 Suppl):793S-795S.

Aged garlic extract maintains cardiovascular homeostasis in mice and rats.
J Nutr. 2006 Mar;136(3 Suppl):777S-781S.

Suppression of LDL oxidation by garlic compounds is a possible mechanism of cardiovascular health benefit.
J Nutr. 2006 Mar;136(3 Suppl):765S-768S.

Homocysteine-lowering action is another potential cardiovascular protective factor of aged garlic extract.
J Nutr. 2006 Mar;136(3 Suppl):745S-749S.

Aged garlic extract retards progression of coronary artery calcification.
J Nutr. 2006 Mar;136(3 Suppl):741S-744S.

Garlic and cardiovascular disease: a critical review.
J Nutr. 2006 Mar;136(3 Suppl):736S-740S.

Allium vegetables and stomach cancer risk in China.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2005 Jul-Sep;6(3):387-95.

Health effects of garlic.
Am Fam Physician. 2005 Jul 1;72(1):103-6.

Long-term administration of aqueous garlic extract (AGE) alleviates liver fibrosis and oxidative damage induced by biliary obstruction in rats.
Life Sci. 2005 Apr 15;76(22):2593-606.

Effect of fenugreek, onion and garlic on blood glucose and histopathology of pancreas of alloxan-induced diabetic rats.
Indian J Med Sci. 2005 Feb;59(2):64-9.

Effects of aged garlic extract (AGE) on colorectal adenomas: a double-blinded study.
Hiroshima J Med Sci. 2004 Dec;53(3-4):39-45.

Effect of garlic supplementation on oxidized low density lipoproteins and lipid peroxidation in patients of essential hypertension.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2004 Nov;266(1-2):109-15.

Anticarcinogenic properties of garlic: a review.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2004;44(6):479-88.

Effect of garlic (Allium sativum) powder tablets on serum lipids, blood pressure and arterial stiffness in normo-lipidaemic volunteers: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
Br J Nutr. 2004 Oct;92(4):701-6.

Know the benefits and risks of using common herbal therapies.
Holist Nurs Pract. 2004 Jul-Aug;18(4):192-8.

Effects of garlic extract supplementation on blood lipid and antioxidant parameters and atherosclerotic plaque formation process in cholesterol-fed rabbits.
J Herb Pharmacother. 2002;2(2):19-32.

Antimicrobial effects of garlic, clove and red hot chilli on Listeria monocytogenes in broth model systems and soft cheese.
Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2003 Mar;54(2):127-33.

A systematic review of the effectiveness of garlic as an anti-hyperlipidemic agent.
J Am Acad Nurse Pract. 2003 Mar;15(3):120-9.

The combined effects of garlic oil and fish oil on the hepatic antioxidant and drug-metabolizing enzymes of rats.
Br J Nutr. 2003 Feb;89(2):189-200.

Garlic and health.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2001 Aug;11(4 Suppl):57-65.

Ginger - Selected References

Return to Ginger or Natural Remedies List or Home Page

Effects of ginger capsules on pregnancy, nausea, and vomiting.
Ozgoli G, Goli M, Simbar M.
J Altern Complement Med. 2009 Mar;15(3):243-6.

Anticancer Effects of Alpinia pricei Hayata Roots.
Hsu CL, Yu YS, Yen GC.
J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Dec 21.

Increased growth inhibitory effects on human cancer cells and anti-inflammatory potency of shogaols from Zingiber officinale relative to gingerols.
Sang S, Hong J, Wu H, Liu J, Yang CS, Pan MH, Badmaev V, Ho CT.
J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Nov 25;57(22):10645-50.

6-Shogaol inhibits monosodium urate crystal-induced inflammation - An in vivo and in vitro study.
Sabina EP, Rasool M, Mathew L, Ezilrani P, Indu H.
Food Chem Toxicol. 2009 Oct 9.

Some phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe): a review of recent research.
Ali BH, Blunden G, Tanira MO, Nemmar A.
Food Chem Toxicol. 2008 Feb;46(2):409-20.

Ginkgo - Selected References

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DeKosky, S. T., J. D. Williamson, et al. (2008). "Ginkgo biloba for prevention of dementia: a randomized controlled trial." Jama 300(19): 2253-62.

Wu, Y. Z., S. Q. Li, et al. (2008). "G. biloba extract improves coronary artery circulation in patients with coronary artery disease: contribution of plasma nitric oxide and endothelin-1." Phytother Res 22(6): 734-9.

Wu, Y., S. Li, et al. (2008). "G. biloba extract improves coronary blood flow in healthy elderly adults: role of endothelium-dependent vasodilation." Phytomedicine 15(3): 164-9.

Meston, C. M., A. H. Rellini, et al. (2008). "Short- and long-term effects of G. biloba extract on sexual dysfunction in women." Arch Sex Behav 37(4): 530-47.

Gardner, C. D., R. E. Taylor-Piliae, et al. (2008). "Effect of Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) on treadmill walking time among adults with peripheral artery disease: a randomized clinical trial." J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev 28(4): 258-65.

Dodge, H. H., T. Zitzelberger, et al. (2008). "A randomized placebo-controlled trial of Ginkgo biloba for the prevention of cognitive decline." Neurology 70(19 Pt 2): 1809-17.

Andrieu, S., P. J. Ousset, et al. (2008). "GuidAge study: a 5-year double blind, randomised trial of EGb 761 for the prevention of Alzheimer's disease in elderly subjects with memory complaints. i. rationale, design and baseline data." Curr Alzheimer Res 5(4): 406-15.

Wu, Y., S. Li, et al. (2007). "Ginkgo biloba extract improves coronary blood flow in patients with coronary artery disease: role of endothelium-dependent vasodilation." Planta Med 73(7): 624-8.

Woelk, H., K. H. Arnoldt, et al. (2007). "Ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 in generalized anxiety disorder and adjustment disorder with anxious mood: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial." J Psychiatr Res 41(6): 472-80.

Wimpissinger, B., F. Berisha, et al. (2007). "Influence of Ginkgo biloba on ocular blood flow." Acta Ophthalmol Scand 85(4): 445-9.

Napryeyenko, O. and I. Borzenko (2007). "Ginkgo biloba special extract in dementia with neuropsychiatric features. A randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial." Arzneimittelforschung 57(1): 4-11.

Moraga, F. A., A. Flores, et al. (2007). "Ginkgo biloba decreases acute mountain sickness in people ascending to high altitude at Ollague (3696 m) in northern Chile." Wilderness Environ Med 18(4): 251-7.

Kennedy, D. O., P. A. Jackson, et al. (2007). "Modulation of cognitive performance following single doses of 120 mg Ginkgo biloba extract administered to healthy young volunteers." Hum Psychopharmacol 22(8): 559-66.

Gardner, C. D., J. L. Zehnder, et al. (2007). "Effect of Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) and aspirin on platelet aggregation and platelet function analysis among older adults at risk of cardiovascular disease: a randomized clinical trial." Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 18(8): 787-93.

Donfrancesco, R. and L. Ferrante (2007). "Ginkgo biloba in dyslexia: a pilot study." Phytomedicine 14(6): 367-70.

Beckert, B. W., M. J. Concannon, et al. (2007). "The effect of herbal medicines on platelet function: an in vivo experiment and review of the literature." Plast Reconstr Surg 120(7): 2044-50.

Aruna, D. and M. U. Naidu (2007). "Pharmacodynamic interaction studies of Ginkgo biloba with cilostazol and clopidogrel in healthy human subjects." Br J Clin Pharmacol 63(3): 333-8.

Wolf, H. R. (2006). "Does Ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 provide additional effects on coagulation and bleeding when added to acetylsalicylic acid 500 mg daily?" Drugs R D 7(3): 163-72.

Mazza, M., A. Capuano, et al. (2006). "Ginkgo biloba and donepezil: a comparison in the treatment of Alzheimer's dementia in a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study." Eur J Neurol 13(9): 981-5.

Kudolo, G. B., W. Wang, et al. (2006). "The effect of the ingestion of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) on the pharmacokinetics of metformin in non-diabetic and type 2 diabetic subjects--a double blind placebo-controlled, crossover study." Clin Nutr 25(4): 606-16.

Johnson, S. K., B. J. Diamond, et al. (2006). "The effect of Ginkgo biloba on functional measures in multiple sclerosis: a pilot randomized controlled trial." Explore (NY) 2(1): 19-24.

Jiang, X., E. Y. Blair, et al. (2006). "Investigation of the effects of herbal medicines on warfarin response in healthy subjects: a population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling approach." J Clin Pharmacol 46(11): 1370-8.

Ito, T. Y., M. L. Polan, et al. (2006). "The enhancement of female sexual function with ArginMax, a nutritional supplement, among women differing in menopausal status." J Sex Marital Ther 32(5): 369-78.

Burns, N. R., J. Bryan, et al. (2006). "Ginkgo biloba: no robust effect on cognitive abilities or mood in healthy young or older adults." Hum Psychopharmacol 21(1): 27-37.

Zhu, H. W., Z. F. Shi, et al. (2005). "[Effect of extract of ginkgo bilboa leaf on early diabetic nephropathy]." Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 25(10): 889-91.

Jiang, X., K. M. Williams, et al. (2005). "Effect of ginkgo and ginger on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin in healthy subjects." Br J Clin Pharmacol 59(4): 425-32.

Halil, M., M. Cankurtaran, et al. (2005). "No alteration in the PFA-100 in vitro bleeding time induced by the Ginkgo biloba special extract, EGb 761, in elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment." Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 16(5): 349-53.

Elsabagh, S., D. E. Hartley, et al. (2005). "Limited cognitive benefits in Stage +2 postmenopausal women after 6 weeks of treatment with Ginkgo biloba." J Psychopharmacol 19(2): 173-81.

Elsabagh, S., D. E. Hartley, et al. (2005). "Differential cognitive effects of Ginkgo biloba after acute and chronic treatment in healthy young volunteers." Psychopharmacology (Berl) 179(2): 437-46.

Chow, T., V. Browne, et al. (2005). "Ginkgo biloba and acetazolamide prophylaxis for acute mountain sickness: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial." Arch Intern Med 165(3): 296-301.

Bidzan, L., A. Biliekiewicz, et al. (2005). "[Preliminary assessment of ginkgo biloba (Ginkofar) in patients with dementia]." Psychiatr Pol 39(3): 559-66.

Wheatley, D. (2004). "Triple-blind, placebo-controlled trial of Ginkgo biloba in sexual dysfunction due to antidepressant drugs." Hum Psychopharmacol 19(8): 545-8.

Trick, L., J. Boyle, et al. (2004). "The effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (LI 1370) supplementation and discontinuation on activities of daily living and mood in free living older volunteers." Phytother Res 18(7): 531-7.

Rejali, D., A. Sivakumar, et al. (2004). "Ginkgo biloba does not benefit patients with tinnitus: a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind trial and meta-analysis of randomized trials." Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci 29(3): 226-31.

Kudolo, G. B., W. Wang, et al. (2004). "The ingestion of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) inhibits arachidonic acid-mediated platelet aggregation and thromboxane B2 production in healthy volunteers." J Herb Pharmacother 4(4): 13-26.

Kohler, S., P. Funk, et al. (2004). "Influence of a 7-day treatment with Ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 on bleeding time and coagulation: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study in healthy volunteers." Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 15(4): 303-9.

Hartley, D. E., S. Elsabagh, et al. (2004). "Gincosan (a combination of Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng): the effects on mood and cognition of 6 and 12 weeks' treatment in post-menopausal women." Nutr Neurosci 7(5-6): 325-33.

Haan, J. and R. Horr (2004). "[Delay in progression of dependency and need of care of dementia patients treated with Ginkgo special extract EGb 761]." Wien Med Wochenschr 154(21-22): 511-4.

Gertsch, J. H., B. Basnyat, et al. (2004). "Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled comparison of ginkgo biloba and acetazolamide for prevention of acute mountain sickness among Himalayan trekkers: the prevention of high altitude illness trial (PHAIT)." Bmj 328(7443): 797.

Bernardczyk-Meller, J., J. Siwiec-Proscinska, et al. (2004). "[Influence of Eqb 761 on the function of the retina in children and adolescent with long lasting diabetes mellitus--preliminary report]." Klin Oczna 106(4-5): 569-71.

van Dongen, M., E. van Rossum, et al. (2003). "Ginkgo for elderly people with dementia and age-associated memory impairment: a randomized clinical trial." J Clin Epidemiol 56(4): 367-76.

Santos, R. F., J. C. Galduroz, et al. (2003). "Cognitive performance, SPECT, and blood viscosity in elderly non-demented people using Ginkgo biloba." Pharmacopsychiatry 36(4): 127-33.

Quaranta, L., S. Bettelli, et al. (2003). "Effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on preexisting visual field damage in normal tension glaucoma." Ophthalmology 110(2): 359-62; discussion 362-4.

Parsad, D., R. Pandhi, et al. (2003). "Effectiveness of oral Ginkgo biloba in treating limited, slowly spreading vitiligo." Clin Exp Dermatol 28(3): 285-7.

Kanowski, S. and R. Hoerr (2003). "Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in dementia: intent-to-treat analyses of a 24-week, multi-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial." Pharmacopsychiatry 36(6): 297-303.

Hartley, D. E., L. Heinze, et al. (2003). "Effects on cognition and mood in postmenopausal women of 1-week treatment with Ginkgo biloba." Pharmacol Biochem Behav 75(3): 711-20.

Engelsen, J., J. D. Nielsen, et al. (2003). "[Effect of Coenzyme Q10 and Ginkgo biloba on warfarin dosage in patients on long-term warfarin treatment. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial]." Ugeskr Laeger 165(18): 1868-71.

Cieza, A., P. Maier, et al. (2003). "Effects of Ginkgo biloba on mental functioning in healthy volunteers." Arch Med Res 34(5): 373-81.

Cieza, A., P. Maier, et al. (2003). "[The effect of ginkgo biloba on healthy elderly subjects]." Fortschr Med Orig 121(1): 5-10.

Bal Dit Sollier, C., H. Caplain, et al. (2003). "No alteration in platelet function or coagulation induced by EGb761 in a controlled study." Clin Lab Haematol 25(4): 251-3.

Solomon, P. R., F. Adams, et al. (2002). "Ginkgo for memory enhancement: a randomized controlled trial." Jama 288(7): 835-40.

Orendorz-Fraczkowska, K., L. Pospiech, et al. (2002). "[Results of combined treatment for vestibular receptor impairment with physical therapy and Ginkgo biloba extract (Egb 761)]." Otolaryngol Pol 56(1): 83-8.

Muir, A. H., R. Robb, et al. (2002). "The use of Ginkgo biloba in Raynaud's disease: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial." Vasc Med 7(4): 265-7.

Morgenstern, C. and E. Biermann (2002). "The efficacy of Ginkgo special extract EGb 761 in patients with tinnitus." Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 40(5): 188-97.

Mix, J. A. and W. D. Crews, Jr. (2002). "A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in a sample of cognitively intact older adults: neuropsychological findings." Hum Psychopharmacol 17(6): 267-77.

Mehlsen, J., H. Drabaek, et al. (2002). "Effects of a Ginkgo biloba extract on forearm haemodynamics in healthy volunteers." Clin Physiol Funct Imaging 22(6): 375-8.

Lister, R. E. (2002). "An open, pilot study to evaluate the potential benefits of coenzyme Q10 combined with Ginkgo biloba extract in fibromyalgia syndrome." J Int Med Res 30(2): 195-9.

Le Bars, P. L., F. M. Velasco, et al. (2002). "Influence of the severity of cognitive impairment on the effect of the Gnkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in Alzheimer's disease." Neuropsychobiology 45(1): 19-26.

Kennedy, D. O., A. B. Scholey, et al. (2002). "Modulation of cognition and mood following administration of single doses of Ginkgo biloba, ginseng, and a ginkgo/ginseng combination to healthy young adults." Physiol Behav 75(5): 739-51.

Kang, B. J., S. J. Lee, et al. (2002). "A placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of Ginkgo biloba for antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction." Hum Psychopharmacol 17(6): 279-84.

Jezova, D., R. Duncko, et al. (2002). "Reduction of rise in blood pressure and cortisol release during stress by Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) in healthy volunteers." J Physiol Pharmacol 53(3): 337-48.

Gertsch, J. H., T. B. Seto, et al. (2002). "Ginkgo biloba for the prevention of severe acute mountain sickness (AMS) starting one day before rapid ascent." High Alt Med Biol 3(1): 29-37.

Stough, C., J. Clarke, et al. (2001). "Neuropsychological changes after 30-day Ginkgo biloba administration in healthy participants." Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 4(2): 131-4.

Reisser, C. H. and H. Weidauer (2001). "Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 or pentoxifylline for the treatment of sudden deafness: a randomized, reference-controlled, double-blind study." Acta Otolaryngol 121(5): 579-84.

Moulton, P. L., L. N. Boyko, et al. (2001). "The effect of Ginkgo biloba on memory in healthy male volunteers." Physiol Behav 73(4): 659-65.

Kennedy, D. O., A. B. Scholey, et al. (2001). "Differential, dose dependent changes in cognitive performance following acute administration of a Ginkgo biloba/Panax ginseng combination to healthy young volunteers." Nutr Neurosci 4(5): 399-412.

Drew, S. and E. Davies (2001). "Effectiveness of Ginkgo biloba in treating tinnitus: double blind, placebo controlled trial." Bmj 322(7278): 73.

Burschka, M. A., H. A. Hassan, et al. (2001). "Effect of treatment with Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 (oral) on unilateral idiopathic sudden hearing loss in a prospective randomized double-blind study of 106 outpatients." Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 258(5): 213-9.

Wesnes, K. A., T. Ward, et al. (2000). "The memory enhancing effects of a Ginkgo biloba/Panax ginseng combination in healthy middle-aged volunteers." Psychopharmacology (Berl) 152(4): 353-61.

van Dongen, M. C., E. van Rossum, et al. (2000). "The efficacy of ginkgo for elderly people with dementia and age-associated memory impairment: new results of a randomized clinical trial." J Am Geriatr Soc 48(10): 1183-94.

Mix, J. A. and W. D. Crews, Jr. (2000). "An examination of the efficacy of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 on the neuropsychologic functioning of cognitively intact older adults." J Altern Complement Med 6(3): 219-29.

Le Bars, P. L., M. Kieser, et al. (2000). "A 26-week analysis of a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in dementia." Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 11(4): 230-7.

Kennedy, D. O., A. B. Scholey, et al. (2000). "The dose-dependent cognitive effects of acute administration of Ginkgo biloba to healthy young volunteers." Psychopharmacology (Berl) 151(4): 416-23.

Schweizer, J. and C. Hautmann (1999). "Comparison of two dosages of ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease Fontaine's stage IIb. A randomised, double-blind, multicentric clinical trial." Arzneimittelforschung 49(11): 900-4.

Rigney, U., S. Kimber, et al. (1999). "The effects of acute doses of standardized Ginkgo biloba extract on memory and psychomotor performance in volunteers." Phytother Res 13(5): 408-15.

Lis-Balchin, M. (1999). "Parallel placebo-controlled clinical study of a mixture of herbs sold as a remedy for cellulite." Phytother Res 13(7): 627-9.

Lingaerde, O., A. R. Foreland, et al. (1999). "Can winter depression be prevented by Ginkgo biloba extract? A placebo-controlled trial." Acta Psychiatr Scand 100(1): 62-6.

Janssens, D., C. Michiels, et al. (1999). "Increase in circulating endothelial cells in patients with primary chronic venous insufficiency: protective effect of Ginkor Fort in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial." J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 33(1): 7-11.

Chung, H. S., A. Harris, et al. (1999). "Ginkgo biloba extract increases ocular blood flow velocity." J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 15(3): 233-40.

Peters, H., M. Kieser, et al. (1998). "Demonstration of the efficacy of ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 on intermittent claudication--a placebo-controlled, double-blind multicenter trial." Vasa 27(2): 106-10.

Michelini, S., A. Micci, et al. (1998). "[Study on the efficacy of ginkgo biloba extract, magnesium and levo-arginine in the treatment of patients with 2d stage arteriopathies. A preliminary study]." Minerva Cardioangiol 46(9): 319-20.

Li, A. L., Y. D. Shi, et al. (1998). "Hemorheology and walking of peripheral arterial occlusive diseases patients during treatment with Ginkgo biloba extract." Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao 19(5): 417-21.

Cesarani, A., F. Meloni, et al. (1998). "Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) in the treatment of equilibrium disorders." Adv Ther 15(5): 291-304.

Blume, J., M. Kieser, et al. (1998). "[Ginkgo-special-extract EGb 761 in peripheral arterial occlusive diseases stage IIb according to Fontaine]." Fortschr Med 116(35-36): 36-7.

Maurer, K., R. Ihl, et al. (1997). "Clinical efficacy of Ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 in dementia of the Alzheimer type." J Psychiatr Res 31(6): 645-55.

Li, M. H., H. L. Zhang, et al. (1997). "[Effects of ginkgo leave concentrated oral liquor in treating asthma]." Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 17(4): 216-8.

Le Bars, P. L., M. M. Katz, et al. (1997). "A placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial of an extract of Ginkgo biloba for dementia. North American EGb Study Group." Jama 278(16): 1327-32.

Roncin, J. P., F. Schwartz, et al. (1996). "EGb 761 in control of acute mountain sickness and vascular reactivity to cold exposure." Aviat Space Environ Med 67(5): 445-52.

Kanowski, S., W. M. Herrmann, et al. (1996). "Proof of efficacy of the ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 in outpatients suffering from mild to moderate primary degenerative dementia of the Alzheimer type or multi-infarct dementia." Pharmacopsychiatry 29(2): 47-56.

Drabaek, H., J. R. Petersen, et al. (1996). "[The effect of Ginkgo biloba extract in patients with intermittent claudication]." Ugeskr Laeger 158(27): 3928-31.

Blume, J., M. Kieser, et al. (1996). "[Placebo-controlled double-blind study of the effectiveness of Ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 in trained patients with intermittent claudication]." Vasa 25(3): 265-74.

Wojcicki, J., B. Gawronska-Szklarz, et al. (1995). "Comparative pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of flavonoid glycosides of Ginkgo biloba after a single oral administration of three formulations to healthy volunteers." Mater Med Pol 27(4): 141-6.

Holgers, K. M., A. Axelsson, et al. (1994). "Ginkgo biloba extract for the treatment of tinnitus." Audiology 33(2): 85-92.

Tamborini, A. and R. Taurelle (1993). "[Value of standardized Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) in the management of congestive symptoms of premenstrual syndrome]." Rev Fr Gynecol Obstet 88(7-9): 447-57.

Allain, H., P. Raoul, et al. (1993). "Effect of two doses of ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) on the dual-coding test in elderly subjects." Clin Ther 15(3): 549-58.

Kiesewetter, H., F. Jung, et al. (1992). "Hemorrheological and circulatory effects of Gincosan." Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 30(3): 97-102.

Grassel, E. (1992). "[Effect of Ginkgo-biloba extract on mental performance. Double-blind study using computerized measurement conditions in patients with cerebral insufficiency]." Fortschr Med 110(5): 73-6.

Rai, G. S., C. Shovlin, et al. (1991). "A double-blind, placebo controlled study of Ginkgo biloba extract ('tanakan') in elderly outpatients with mild to moderate memory impairment." Curr Med Res Opin 12(6): 350-5.

Thomson, G. J., R. K. Vohra, et al. (1990). "A clinical trial of Gingkco Biloba Extract in patients with intermittent claudication." Int Angiol 9(2): 75-8.

Jung, F., C. Mrowietz, et al. (1990). "Effect of Ginkgo biloba on fluidity of blood and peripheral microcirculation in volunteers." Arzneimittelforschung 40(5): 589-93.

Eckmann, F. (1990). "[Cerebral insufficiency--treatment with Ginkgo-biloba extract. Time of onset of effect in a double-blind study with 60 inpatients]." Fortschr Med 108(29): 557-60.

Lanthony, P. and J. P. Cosson (1988). "[The course of color vision in early diabetic retinopathy treated with Ginkgo biloba extract. A preliminary double-blind versus placebo study]." J Fr Ophtalmol 11(10): 671-4.

Taillandier, J., A. Ammar, et al. (1986). "[Treatment of cerebral aging disorders with Ginkgo biloba extract. A longitudinal multicenter double-blind drug vs. placebo study]." Presse Med 15(31): 1583-7.

Meyer, B. (1986). "[Multicenter randomized double-blind drug vs. placebo study of the treatment of tinnitus with Ginkgo biloba extract]." Presse Med 15(31): 1562-4.

Haguenauer, J. P., F. Cantenot, et al. (1986). "[Treatment of equilibrium disorders with Ginkgo biloba extract. A multicenter double-blind drug vs. placebo study]." Presse Med 15(31): 1569-72.

Bauer, U. (1986). "[Ginkgo biloba extract in the treatment of arteriopathy of the lower extremities. A 65-week trial]." Presse Med 15(31): 1546-9.

Schaffler, K. and P. W. Reeh (1985). "[Double blind study of the hypoxia protective effect of a standardized Ginkgo biloba preparation after repeated administration in healthy subjects]." Arzneimittelforschung 35(8): 1283-6.

Bauer, U. (1984). "6-Month double-blind randomised clinical trial of Ginkgo biloba extract versus placebo in two parallel groups in patients suffering from peripheral arterial insufficiency." Arzneimittelforschung 34(6): 716-20.


Ginseng - Selected References

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J Transl Med. 2009 May 14;7(1):34.Bioactivity-guided identification and cell signaling technology to delineate the immunomodulatory effects of Panax ginseng on human promonocytic U937 cells.Lee DC, Yang CL, Chik SC, Li JC, Rong JH, Chan GC, Lau AS.

Safety and tolerability of North American ginseng extract in the treatment of pediatric upper respiratory tract infection: a phase II randomized, controlledtrial of 2 dosing schedules.
Vohra S, Johnston BC, Laycock KL, Midodzi WK, Dhunnoo I, Harris E, Baydala L.
Pediatrics. 2008 Aug;122(2):e402-10.

Effect of CVT-E002 (COLD-fX) versus a ginsenoside extract on systemic and gut-associated immune function.
Biondo PD, Goruk S, Ruth MR, O'Connell E, Field CJ.
Int Immunopharmacol. 2008 Aug;8(8):1134-42.

Colds and influenza: a review of diagnosis and conventional, botanical, and nutritional considerations.
Roxas M, Jurenka J.
Altern Med Rev. 2007 Mar;12(1):25-48.

Efficacy of COLD-fX in the prevention of respiratory symptoms in community-dwelling adults: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlledtrial.
McElhaney JE, Goel V, Toane B, Hooten J, Shan JJ.
J Altern Complement Med. 2006 Mar;12(2):153-7.

Efficacy of an extract of North American ginseng containing poly-furanosyl-pyranosyl-saccharides for preventing upper respiratory tract infections: a randomized controlled trial.
Predy GN, Goel V, Lovlin R, Donner A, Stitt L, Basu TK.
CMAJ. 2005 Oct 25;173(9):1043-8.

Proof of the mysterious efficacy of ginseng: basic and clinical trials: clinical effects of medical ginseng, korean red ginseng: specifically, its anti-stress action for prevention of disease.
Kaneko H, Nakanishi K.
J Pharmacol Sci. 2004 Jun;95(2):158-62.

Immune system effects of echinacea, ginseng, and astragalus: a review.
Block KI, Mead MN.
Integr Cancer Ther. 2003 Sep;2(3):247-67.

Efficacy and safety of the standardised Ginseng extract G115 for potentiating vaccination against the influenza syndrome and protection against the common cold
Scaglione F, Cattaneo G, Alessandria M, Cogo R.
Drugs Exp Clin Res. 1996;22(2):65-72.

Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng) improves glucose and insulin regulation in well-controlled, type 2 diabetes: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of efficacy and safety.
Vuksan V, Sung MK, Sievenpiper JL, Stavro PM, Jenkins AL, Di Buono M, Lee KS, Leiter LA, Nam KY, Arnason JT, Choi M, Naeem A.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2008 Jan;18(1):46-56.

[Effects of Astragalus and saponins of Panax notoginseng on MMP-9 in patientswith type 2 diabetic macroangiopathy] [Article in Chinese]
Liu KZ, Li JB, Lu HL, Wen JK, Han M.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2004 Mar;29(3):264-6.

[Comparative study on effect of Panax notoginseng and ticlid in treating early diabetic nephropathy] [Article in Chinese]
Lang J, Cao H, Wei A.
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1998 Dec;18(12):727-9.

American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) attenuates postprandial glycemia in a time-dependent but not dose-dependent manner in healthy individuals.
Vuksan V, Sievenpiper JL, Wong J, Xu Z, Beljan-Zdravkovic U, Arnason JT, AssineweV, Stavro MP, Jenkins AL, Leiter LA, Francis T.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2001 Apr;73(4):753-8.

Similar postprandial glycemic reductions with escalation of dose andadministration time of American ginseng in type 2 diabetes.
Vuksan V, Stavro MP, Sievenpiper JL, Beljan-Zdravkovic U, Leiter LA, Josse RG, Xu Z.
Diabetes Care. 2000 Sep;23(9):1221-6.

American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L) reduces postprandial glycemia innondiabetic subjects and subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Vuksan V, Sievenpiper JL, Koo VY, Francis T, Beljan-Zdravkovic U, Xu Z, Vidgen E.
Arch Intern Med. 2000 Apr 10;160(7):1009-13.

Ginseng therapy in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients.
Sotaniemi EA, Haapakoski E, Rautio A.
Diabetes Care. 1995 Oct;18(10):1373-5.

Red ginseng for treating erectile dysfunction: a systematic review.
Jang DJ, Lee MS, Shin BC, Lee YC, Ernst E.
Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2008 Oct;66(4):444-50.

Dietary supplements and nutraceuticals in the management of andrologic disorders.
Tamler R, Mechanick JI.
Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2007 Jun;36(2):533-52.

Study of the efficacy of Korean Red Ginseng in the treatment of erectile dysfunction.
de Andrade E, de Mesquita AA, Claro Jde A, de Andrade PM, Ortiz V, Paranhos M, Srougi M.
Asian J Androl. 2007 Mar;9(2):241-4.

Free radical-scavenging activity of Korean red ginseng for erectile dysfunctionin non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus rats.
Ryu JK, Lee T, Kim DJ, Park IS, Yoon SM, Lee HS, Song SU, Suh JK.
Urology. 2005 Mar;65(3):611-5.

Nutrients and botanicals for erectile dysfunction: examining the evidence.
McKay D.
Altern Med Rev. 2004 Mar;9(1):4-16.

Nitric oxide, human diseases and the herbal products that affect the nitric oxidesignalling pathway.
Achike FI, Kwan CY.
Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2003 Sep;30(9):605-15.

Korean red ginseng effective for treatment of erectile dysfunction.
Price A, Gazewood J.
J Fam Pract. 2003 Jan;52(1):20-1.

A double-blind crossover study evaluating the efficacy of korean red ginseng in patients with erectile dysfunction: a preliminary report.
Hong B, Ji YH, Hong JH, Nam KY, Ahn TY.
J Urol. 2002 Nov;168(5):2070-3.

The legacy of Chinese herbal medicine.
Ralph RA.
Md Med. 2002 Winter;3(1):10-2.

Phytochemicals and the breakthrough of traditional herbs in the management of sexual dysfunctions.
Adimoelja A.
Int J Androl. 2000;23 Suppl 2:82-4.

Clinical efficacy of Korean red ginseng for erectile dysfunction.
Choi HK, Seong DH, Rha KH.
Int J Impot Res. 1995 Sep;7(3):181-6.

Methodological issues in the investigation of ginseng as an intervention for fatigue.
Elam JL, Carpenter JS, Shu XO, Boyapati S, Friedmann-Gilchrist J.
Clin Nurse Spec. 2006 Jul-Aug;20(4):183-9.

Korean red ginseng slows depletion of CD4 T cells in human immunodeficiency virustype 1-infected patients.
Sung H, Kang SM, Lee MS, Kim TG, Cho YK.
Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2005 Apr;12(4):497-501.

[Clinical observation on nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with combined therapyof radiotherapy and ginseng polysaccharide injection] [Article in Chinese]
Xie FY, Zeng ZF, Huang HY.
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2001 May;21(5):332-4.

The effects of Eleutherococcus senticosus and Panax ginseng on steroidal hormone indices of stress and lymphocyte subset numbers in endurance athletes.
Gaffney BT, Hagel HM, Rich PA.
Life Sci. 2001 Dec 14;70(4):431-42.

Long-term intake of Korean red ginseng in HIV-1-infected patients: development ofresistance mutation to zidovudine is delayed.
Cho YK, Sung H, Lee HJ, Joo CH, Cho GJ.
Int Immunopharmacol. 2001 Jul;1(7):1295-1305.

The effect of standardized ginseng extract on peripheral blood leukocytes andlymphocyte subsets: a preliminary study in young health adults.
Srisurapanon S, Rungroeng K, Apibal S, Cherdrugsi P, Siripol R, Vanich-Angkul V, Timvipark C.
J Med Assoc Thai. 1997 Sep;80 Suppl 1:S81-5.

Immunomodulatory effects of two extracts of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer.
Scaglione F, Ferrara F, Dugnani S, Falchi M, Santoro G, Fraschini F.
Drugs Exp Clin Res. 1990;16(10):537-42.

Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2008 Jul-Sep;22(3):222-6.
Panax ginseng enhances cognitive performance in Alzheimer disease.
Lee ST, Chu K, Sim JY, Heo JH, Kim M.

[Clinical study on a randomized, double-blind control of Shenwu gelatin capsulein treatment of mild cognitive impairment] [Article in Chinese]
Zhong J, Tian JZ, Zhu AH, Yang CZ.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2007 Sep;32(17):1800-3.

Reductions in levels of the Alzheimer's amyloid beta peptide after oraladministration of ginsenosides.
Chen F, Eckman EA, Eckman CB.
FASEB J. 2006 Jun;20(8):1269-71.

Attention, psychomotor functions and age.
Kallus KW, Schmitt JA, Benton D.
Eur J Nutr. 2005 Dec;44(8):465-84.

Gincosan (a combination of Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng): the effects on mood and cognition of 6 and 12 weeks' treatment in post-menopausal women.
Hartley DE, Elsabagh S, File SE.
Nutr Neurosci. 2004 Oct-Dec;7(5-6):325-33.

Anti-amnestic and anti-aging effects of ginsenoside Rg1 and Rb1 and its mechanismof action.
Cheng Y, Shen LH, Zhang JT.
Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2005 Feb;26(2):143-9.

Improved cognitive performance in human volunteers following administration ofguarana (Paullinia cupana) extract: comparison and interaction with Panaxginseng.
Kennedy DO, Haskell CF, Wesnes KA, Scholey AB.

Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2004 Apr;172(4):430-4.
The memory-enhancing effects of Ginseng and Ginkgo biloba in healthy volunteers.
Persson J, Bringlav E, Nilsson LG, Nyberg L.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2004 Nov;79(3):401-11.

Ginseng: potential for the enhancement of cognitive performance and mood.
Kennedy DO, Scholey AB.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2003 Jun;75(3):687-700.

Modulation of cognition and mood following administration of single doses ofGinkgo biloba, ginseng, and a ginkgo/ginseng combination to healthy young adults.
Kennedy DO, Scholey AB, Wesnes KA.
Physiol Behav. 2002 Apr 15;75(5):739-51.

Differential, dose dependent changes in cognitive performance following acuteadministration of a Ginkgo biloba/Panax ginseng combination to healthy youngvolunteers.
Kennedy DO, Scholey AB, Wesnes KA.
Nutr Neurosci. 2001;4(5):399-412.

Dose dependent changes in cognitive performance and mood following acuteadministration of Ginseng to healthy young volunteers.
Kennedy DO, Scholey AB, Wesnes KA.
Nutr Neurosci. 2001;4(4):295-310.

The memory enhancing effects of a Ginkgo biloba/Panax ginseng combination inhealthy middle-aged volunteers.
Wesnes KA, Ward T, McGinty A, Petrini O.
Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2000 Nov;152(4):353-61.

Panax ginseng pharmacology: a nitric oxide link?
Gillis CN.
Biochem Pharmacol. 1997 Jul 1;54(1):1-8.

The cognitive, subjective, and physical effects of a ginkgo biloba/panax ginseng combination in healthy volunteers with neurasthenic complaints.
Wesnes KA, Faleni RA, Hefting NR, Hoogsteen G, Houben JJ, Jenkins E, Jonkman JH, Leonard J, Petrini O, van Lier JJ.
Psychopharmacol Bull. 1997;33(4):677-83.

Ginseng therapy in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients.
Sotaniemi EA, Haapakoski E, Rautio A.
Diabetes Care. 1995 Oct;18(10):1373-5.

[Antisenility effect of ginseng-rhizome saponin] [Article in Chinese]
Zhao XZ.
Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1990 Oct;10(10):586-9, 579.

Non-estrogenic approaches for the treatment of climacteric symptoms.
Albertazzi P.
Climacteric. 2007 Oct;10 Suppl 2:115-20.

Non-hormonal therapy of post-menopausal vasomotor symptoms: a structured evidence-based review.
Cheema D, Coomarasamy A, El-Toukhy T.
Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2007 Nov;276(5):463-9.

Phyto-Female Complex for the relief of hot flushes, night sweats and quality of sleep: randomized, controlled, double-blind pilot study.
Rotem C, Kaplan B.
Gynecol Endocrinol. 2007 Feb;23(2):117-22.

Cross-sectional analysis of specific complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use by racial/ethnic group and menopausal status: the Study of Women's HealthAcross the Nation (SWAN).
Gold EB, Bair Y, Zhang G, Utts J, Greendale GA, Upchurch D, Chyu L, Sternfeld B, Adler S.
Menopause. 2007 Jul-Aug;14(4):612-23.

Botanical and dietary supplements for mood and anxiety in menopausal women.
Geller SE, Studee L.
Menopause. 2007 May-Jun;14(3 Pt 1):541-9.

Factors associated with dietary supplement use among prescription medication users.Gardiner P, Graham RE, Legedza AT, Eisenberg DM, Phillips RS.
Arch Intern Med. 2006 Oct 9;166(18):1968-74.

The enhancement of female sexual function with ArginMax, a nutritionalsupplement, among women differing in menopausal status.
Ito TY, Polan ML, Whipple B, Trant AS.
J Sex Marital Ther. 2006 Oct-Dec;32(5):369-78.

Nonhormonal therapies for hot flashes in menopause.
Carroll DG.
Am Fam Physician. 2006 Feb 1;73(3):457-64.

Menopause: a review of botanical dietary supplements.
Low Dog T.
Am J Med. 2005 Dec 19;118 Suppl 12B:98-108.

The Herbal Alternatives for Menopause (HALT) Study: background and study design.
Newton KM, Reed SD, Grothaus L, Ehrlich K, Guiltinan J, Ludman E, Lacroix AZ.
Maturitas. 2005 Oct 16;52(2):134-46.

Hot flashes revisited: pharmacological and herbal options for hot flashes management. What does the evidence tell us?
Haimov-Kochman R, Hochner-Celnikier D.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2005 Oct;84(10):972-9.

Gincosan (a combination of Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng): the effects on mood and cognition of 6 and 12 weeks' treatment in post-menopausal women.
Hartley DE, Elsabagh S, File SE.
Nutr Neurosci. 2004 Oct-Dec;7(5-6):325-33.

Estrogen bioassay of ginseng extract and ArginMax, a nutritional supplement for the enhancement of female sexual function.
Polan ML, Hochberg RB, Trant AS, Wuh HC.
J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2004 May;13(4):427-30.

Treatment of menopause-associated vasomotor symptoms: position statement of The North American Menopause Society.
North American Menopause Society.
Menopause. 2004 Jan-Feb;11(1):11-33.

Herbal product use and menopause symptom relief in primary care patients: a MetroNet study.
Dailey RK, Neale AV, Northrup J, West P, Schwartz KL.
J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2003 Sep;12(7):633-41.

A systematic review of herbal medicinal products for the treatment of menopausal symptoms.
Huntley AL, Ernst E.
Menopause. 2003 Sep-Oct;10(5):465-76.

Morning/evening menopausal formula relieves menopausal symptoms: a pilot study.
Sun J.
J Altern Complement Med. 2003 Jun;9(3):403-9.

Herbal therapy use by perimenopausal women.
Gingrich PM, Fogel CI.
J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2003 Mar-Apr;32(2):181-9.

Effects of a standardized ginseng extract on quality of life and physiologicalparameters in symptomatic postmenopausal women: a double-blind,placebo-controlled trial. Swedish Alternative Medicine Group.
Wiklund IK, Mattsson LA, Lindgren R, Limoni C.
Int J Clin Pharmacol Res. 1999;19(3):89-99.

Effect of Korean red ginseng on psychological functions in patients with severeclimacteric syndromes.
Tode T, Kikuchi Y, Hirata J, Kita T, Nakata H, Nagata I.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1999 Dec;67(3):169-74.

Ginseng face cream and unexplained vaginal bleeding.
Hopkins MP, Androff L, Benninghoff AS.
Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1988 Nov;159(5):1121-2.

Safety and efficacy study with various doses of SS-cream in patients withpremature ejaculation in a double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled clinical study.
Choi HK, Xin ZC, Choi YD, Lee WH, Mah SY, Kim DK.
Int J Impot Res. 1999 Oct;11(5):261-4.

Clinical efficacy of Korean red ginseng for erectile dysfunction.
Choi HK, Seong DH, Rha KH.
Int J Impot Res. 1995 Sep;7(3):181-6.

Ginseng, sex behavior, and nitric oxide.
Murphy LL, Lee TJ.
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002 May;962:372-7.

Panax ginseng: a systematic review of adverse effects and drug interactions.
Coon JT, Ernst E.
Drug Saf. 2002;25(5):323-44.

The aphrodisiac and adaptogenic properties of ginseng.
Nocerino E, Amato M, Izzo AA.
Fitoterapia. 2000 Aug;71 Suppl 1:S1-5.

Ginseng supplementation does not enhance healthy young adults' peak aerobic exercise performance.
Allen JD, McLung J, Nelson AG, Welsch M.
J Am Coll Nutr. 1998 Oct;17(5):462-6.

No ergogenic effects of ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) during graded maximal aerobic exercise.
Engels HJ, Wirth JC.
J Am Diet Assoc. 1997 Oct;97(10):1110-5.

Ginseng supplementation does not change lactate threshold and physical performances in physically active Thai men.
Kulaputana O, Thanakomsirichot S, Anomasiri W.
J Med Assoc Thai. 2007 Jun;90(6):1172-9.

The efficacy of ginseng. A systemic review of randomized clinical trials.
Vogler BK, Pittler MH, Ernst E.
Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1999;55:567-75.

No ergogenic effects of ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) during grades maximal aerobic exercise.
Engels HJ, Wirth JC.
J Am Diet Assoc 1997;97:1110-5.

No ergogenic effect of ginseng ingestion.
Morris AC, Jacobs I, McLellan TM, et al.
Int J Sport Nutr 1996;6:263-71.

Effects of Panax ginseng on blood alcohol clearance in man.
Lee FC, Ko JH, Park JK, Lee JS.
Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 1987 Jun;14(6):543-6.

Double-blind study of a multivitamin complex supplemented with ginseng extract.
Caso Marasco A, Vargas Ruiz R, Salas Villagomez A, Begoa Infante C.
Drugs Exp Clin Res. 1996;22(6):323-9.

Nitric oxide, human diseases and the herbal products that affect the nitric oxidesignalling pathway.
Achike FI, Kwan CY.
Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2003 Sep;30(9):605-15.

Ginseng, sex behavior, and nitric oxide.
Murphy LL, Lee TJ.
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002 May;962:372-7.

Aphrodisiacs past and present: a historical review.
Sandroni P.
Clin Auton Res. 2001 Oct;11(5):303-7.

[The safety of herbal medicines in the psychiatric practice] [Article in Hebrew]
Boniel T, Dannon P.
Harefuah. 2001 Aug;140(8):780-3, 805.

The aphrodisiac and adaptogenic properties of ginseng.
Nocerino E, Amato M, Izzo AA.
Fitoterapia. 2000 Aug;71 Suppl 1:S1-5.

The relaxation effects of ginseng saponin in rabbit corporal smooth muscle: is it a nitric oxide donor?
Kim HJ, Woo DS, Lee G, Kim JJ.
Br J Urol. 1998 Nov;82(5):744-8.

Cardiovascular protection by ginsenosides and their nitric oxide releasingaction.
Chen X.
Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 1996 Aug;23(8):728-32.

Ginsenosides-induced nitric oxide-mediated relaxation of the rabbit corpuscavernosum.
Chen X, Lee TJ.
Br J Pharmacol. 1995 May;115(1):15-8.

Epidemiological study on cancer prevention by ginseng: are all kinds of cancerspreventable by ginseng?
Yun TK, Choi SY, Yun HY.
J Korean Med Sci. 2001 Dec;16 Suppl:S19-27.

Glucosamine - Selected References

Return to Glucosamine or Natural Remedies List or Home Page

Gregory PJ, Sperry M, Wilson AF.
Dietary supplements for osteoarthritis.
Am Fam Physician. 2008 Jan 15;77(2):177-84. Review.

Garner ST Jr, Israel BJ, Achmed H, Capomacchia AC, Abney T, Azadi P.
Transdermal permeability of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine.
Pharm Dev Technol. 2007;12(2):169-74.

Aragon CL, Hofmeister EH, Budsberg SC.
Systematic review of clinical trials of treatments for osteoarthritis in dogs.
J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2007 Feb 15;230(4):514-21. Review.

McHughes M, Lipman AG.br>Managing osteoarthritis pain when your patient fails simple analgesics and NSAIDs and is not a candidate for surgery.
Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2006 Feb;8(1):22-9. Review.

Dahmer S, Schiller RM.
Glucosamine.
Am Fam Physician. 2008 Aug 15;78(4):471-6.

Knudsen JF, Sokol GH.
Potential glucosamine-warfarin interaction resulting in increased international normalized ratio: case report and review of the literature and MedWatch database.
Pharmacotherapy. 2008 Apr;28(4):540-8. Review.

Rozendaal RM, Koes BW, van Osch GJ, Uitterlinden EJ, Garling EH, Willemsen SP, Ginai AZ, Verhaar JA, Weinans H, Bierma-Zeinstra SM.
Effect of glucosamine sulfate on hip osteoarthritis: a randomized trial.
Ann Intern Med. 2008 Feb 19;148(4):268-77.

Bissett DL.
Glucosamine: an ingredient with skin and other benefits.br>J Cosmet Dermatol. 2006 Dec;5(4):309-15. Review.

Dudek A, Raczkiewicz-Papierska A, Tlustochowicz W.
[Efficacy of glucosamine sulfate treatment in patients with osteoarthritis]
Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2007 Mar;22(129):204-7. Polish.

Bruyere O, Pavelka K, Rovati LC, Gatterová J, Giacovelli G, Olejarová M, Deroisy R, Reginster JY.
Total joint replacement after glucosamine sulphate treatment in knee osteoarthritis: results of a mean 8-year observation of patients from two previous 3-year, randomised, placebo-controlled trials.
Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2008 Feb;16(2):254-60. Epub 2007 Jul 27.

Jang BC, Sung SH, Park JG, Park JW, Bae JH, Shin DH, Park GY, Han SB, Suh SI.
Glucosamine hydrochloride specifically inhibits COX-2 by preventing COX-2 N-glycosylation and by increasing COX-2 protein turnover in a proteasome-dependent manner.
J Biol Chem. 2007 Sep 21;282(38):27622-32. Epub 2007 Jul 16.

Vlad SC, LaValley MP, McAlindon TE, Felson DT.
Glucosamine for pain in osteoarthritis: why do trial results differ?br>Arthritis Rheum. 2007 Jul;56(7):2267-77. Review.

Pham T, Cornea A, Blick KE, Jenkins A, Scofield RH.br>Oral glucosamine in doses used to treat osteoarthritis worsens insulin resistance.
Am J Med Sci. 2007 Jun;333(6):333-9.

Messier SP, Mihalko S, Loeser RF, Legault C, Jolla J, Pfruender J, Prosser B, Adrian A, Williamson JD.
Glucosamine/chondroitin combined with exercise for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: a preliminary study.
Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2007 Nov;15(11):1256-66. Epub 2007 Jun 11.

Singh S, Khajuria A, Taneja SC, Khajuria RK, Singh J, Qazi GN.
Boswellic acids and glucosamine show synergistic effect in preclinical anti-inflammatory study in rats.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2007 Jul 1;17(13):3706-11. Epub 2007 Apr 19.

Sivojelezova A, Koren G, Einarson A.
Glucosamine use in pregnancy: an evaluation of pregnancy outcome.
J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2007 Apr;16(3):345-8.

Reginster JY, Bruyere O, Neuprez A.
Current role of glucosamine in the treatment of osteoarthritis.
Rheumatology (Oxford). 2007 May;46(5):731-5. Epub 2007 Mar 31. Review.

Herrero-Beaumont G, Rovati LC, Castañeda S, Alvarez-Soria MA, Largo R.
The reverse glucosamine sulfate pathway: application in knee osteoarthritis.
Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2007 Feb;8(2):215-25. Review.

Marshall PD, Poddar S, Tweed EM, Brandes L.
Clinical inquiries: Do glucosamine and chondroitin worsen blood sugar control in diabetes?
J Fam Pract. 2006 Dec;55(12):1091-3. Review.

Distler J, Anguelouch A.
Evidence-based practice: review of clinical evidence on the efficacy of glucosamine and chondroitin in the treatment of osteoarthritis.
J Am Acad Nurse Pract. 2006 Oct;18(10):487-93. Review.

Nakamura H, Masuko K, Yudoh K, Kato T, Kamada T, Kawahara T.
Effects of glucosamine administration on patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
Rheumatol Int. 2007 Jan;27(3):213-8. Epub 2006 Sep 5.

Ernst E.
Complementary or alternative therapies for osteoarthritis.
Nat Clin Pract Rheumatol. 2006 Feb;2(2):74-80. Review.

Chu SC, Yang SF, Lue KH, Hsieh YS, Lee CY, Chou MC, Lu KH.
Glucosamine sulfate suppresses the expressions of urokinase plasminogen activator and inhibitor and gelatinases during the early stage of osteoarthritis.
Clin Chim Acta. 2006 Oct;372(1-2):167-72. Epub 2006 Jun 6.

McCarthy G, O'Donovan J, Jones B, McAllister H, Seed M, Mooney C.
Randomised double-blind, positive-controlled trial to assess the efficacy of glucosamine/chondroitin sulfate for the treatment of dogs with osteoarthritis.
Vet J. 2007 Jul;174(1):54-61. Epub 2006 May 2.

Stumpf JL, Lin SW.
Effect of glucosamine on glucose control.
Ann Pharmacother. 2006 Apr;40(4):694-8. Epub 2006 Mar 28. Review.

Svetlova MS, Ignat'ev VK.
[Experience with glucosamine hydrochloride in the treatment of patients with osteoarthrosis]
Ter Arkh. 2005;77(12):64-7. Russian.

Qiu GX, Weng XS, Zhang K, Zhou YX, Lou SQ, Wang YP, Li W, Zhang H, Liu Y.
[A multi-central, randomized, controlled clinical trial of glucosamine hydrochloride/sulfate in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis]
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2005 Nov 16;85(43):3067-70. Chinese.

Glutathione - Selected References

Return to Glutathione or Natural Remedies List or Home Page

Novel plasma phospholipid biomarkers of autism: Mitochondrial dysfunction as a putative causative mechanism.
Pastural E, Ritchie S, Lu Y, Jin W, Kavianpour A, Khine Su-Myat K, Heath D, Wood PL, Fisk M, Goodenowe DB.
Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2009 Jul 14.

Cellular and mitochondrial glutathione redox imbalance in lymphoblastoid cells derived from children with autism.
James SJ, Rose S, Melnyk S, Jernigan S, Blossom S, Pavliv O, Gaylor DW.
FASEB J. 2009 Aug;23(8):2374-83.

Metabolic biomarkers related to oxidative stress and antioxidant status in Saudi autistic children.
Al-Gadani Y, El-Ansary A, Attas O, Al-Ayadhi L.
Clin Biochem. 2009 Jul;42(10-11):1032-40.

Genetic variant of glutathione peroxidase 1 in autism.
Ming X, Johnson WG, Stenroos ES, Mars A, Lambert GH, Buyske S.
Brain Dev. 2009 Feb 3.

A possible central mechanism in autism spectrum disorders, part 2: immunoexcitotoxicity.
Blaylock RL.
Altern Ther Health Med. 2009 Jan-Feb;15(1):60-7.

Witschi A, Reddy S, Stofer B, Lauterburg BH.
The systemic availability of oral glutathione.
Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1992;43(6):667-9.

Glutathione in health and disease: pharmacotherapeutic issues.
Lomaestro BM, Malone M.
Ann Pharmacother. 1995 Dec;29(12):1263-73.

Dietary glutathione intake and the risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer.
Flagg EW, Coates RJ, Jones DP, Byers TE, Greenberg RS, Gridley G, McLaughlin JK, Blot WJ, Haber M, Preston-Martin S, et al.
Am J Epidemiol. 1994 Mar 1;139(5):453-65.

The neuronal toxicity of sulfite plus peroxynitrite is enhanced by glutathione depletion: implications for Parkinson's disease.
Free Radic Biol Med. 1999 Sep;27(5-6):515-20.

Gallic acid ester derivatives induce apoptosis and cell adhesion inhibition in melanoma cells: The relationship between free radical generation, glutathione depletion and cell death.
Locatelli C, Leal PC, Yunes RA, Nunes RJ, Creczynski-Pasa TB.
Chem Biol Interact. 2009 Oct 7;181(2):175-84.

Reduced intravenous glutathione in the treatment of early Parkinson's disease.
Sechi G, Deledda MG, Bua G, Satta WM, Deiana GA, Pes GM, Rosati G.
Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 1996 Oct;20(7):1159-70.

Oral glutathione increases tissue glutathione in vivo.
Aw TY, Wierzbicka G, Jones DP.
Chem Biol Interact. 1991;80(1):89-97.

Placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over trial of glutathione therapy in male infertility.
Lenzi A, Culasso F, Gandini L, Lombardo F, Dondero F.
Hum Reprod. 1993 Oct;8(10):1657-62.

Grains of Paradise - Selected References

Return to Grains of Paradiseor Natural Remedies List or Home Page

Umukoro S, Ashorobi BR.
Further pharmacological studies on aqueous seed extract of Aframomum melegueta in rats.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Feb 12;115(3):489-93.

Ajose FO.
Some Nigerian plants of dermatologic importance.
Int J Dermatol. 2007 Oct;46 Suppl 1:48-55.

Umukoro S, Ashorobi RB.
Further studies on the antinociceptive action of aqueous seed extract of Aframomum melegueta.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Feb 12;109(3):501-4.

Konning GH, Agyare C, Ennison B.
Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants from Ghana.

Kamtchouing P, Mbongue GY, Dimo T, Watcho P, Jatsa HB, Sokeng SD.
Effects of Aframomum melegueta and Piper guineense on sexual behaviour of male rats.
Behav Pharmacol. 2002 May;13(3):243-7.

Lans C, Harper T, Georges K, Bridgewater E.
Medicinal and ethnoveterinary remedies of hunters in Trinidad.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2001;1:10. Epub 2001 Nov 30.

Hoodia - Selected References

Return to Hoodia or Natural Remedies List or Home Page

Phytopharm plc successful completion of proof of principle clinical study of P57 for Obesity.
Phytopharm Press Release; December 5, 2001
Lee RA, Balick MJ.

Protecting traditional knowledge: the San and hoodia.
Bull World Health Organ. 2006 May;84(5):345.

Indigenous use of Hoodia gordonii and appetite suppression.
Explore (NY). 2007 Jul-Aug;3(4):404-6.

van Heerden FR, Marthinus Horak R, Maharaj VJ, Vleggaar R, Senabe JV, Gunning PJ.
An appetite suppressant from Hoodia species.
Phytochemistry. 2007 Oct;68(20):2545-53.

Dall'Acqua S, Innocenti G.
Steroidal glycosides from Hoodia gordonii.
Steroids. 2007 Jun;72(6-7):559-68.

Pawar RS, Shukla YJ, Khan SI, Avula B, Khan IA.
New oxypregnane glycosides from appetite suppressant herbal supplement Hoodia gordonii.
Steroids. 2007 Jun;72(6-7):524-34.

Horny Goat Weed - Selected References

Return to Horny Goat Weed or Natural Remedies List or Home Page

J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Dec 3;114(3):412-6.
Effect of lipid-based suspension of Epimedium koreanum Nakai extract on sexual behavior in rats.
Makarova MN, Pozharitskaya ON, Shikov AN, Tesakova SV, Makarov VG, Tikhonov VP.

Int J Impot Res. 2006 Jul-Aug;18(4):335-42.
Epimedium brevicornumMaxim extract relaxes rabbit corpus cavernosum throughmultitargets on nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate signaling pathway.
Chiu JH, Chen KK, Chien TM, Chiou WF, Chen CC, Wang JY, Lui WY, Wu CW.

Planta Med. 2005 Feb;71(2):114-9.
New estrogenic prenylflavone from Epimedium brevicornum inhibits the growth of breast cancer cells.
Yap SP, Shen P, Butler MS, Gong Y, Loy CJ, Yong EL.

Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1995 Apr;15(4):202-4.
Effect of Epimedium sagittatumon quality of life and cellular immunity inpatients of hemodialysis maintenance [Article in Chinese]
Liao HJ, Chen XM, Li WG.

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2008 Apr;33(8):928-31.
Effects of rat serum containing total flavonoid extract of Epimedium sagittatum [horny goat weed] on development of osteoblasts [Article in Chinese]
Ma HP, Jia ZP, Cheng KM, Zhang RX, Li MX, Wang J.

Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao. 2008 Feb 18;40(1):43-6.
Effects of Epimedium on proliferation, function and apoptosis of mouseosteoblasts in vitro [Article in Chinese]
Li SL, Gao H, Zhang KH.

Pharmazie. 2007 May;62(5):388-91.
Icariin inhibits the osteoclast formation induced by RANKL and macrophage-colony stimulating factor in mouse bone marrow culture.
Chen KM, Ge BF, Liu XY, Ma PH, Lu MB, Bai MH, Wang Y.

Phytomedicine. 2008 Jan;15(1-2):55-61.
Effects of total flavonoids and flavonol glycosides from Epimedium koreanum Nakaion the proliferation and differentiation of primary osteoblasts.
Zhang DW, Cheng Y, Wang NL, Zhang JC, Yang MS, Yao XS.

J Bone Miner Res. 2007 Jul;22(7):1072-9.
Epimedium-derived phytoestrogen flavonoids exert beneficial effect on preventing bone loss in late postmenopausal women: a 24-month randomized, double-blind andplacebo-controlled trial.
Zhang G, Qin L, Shi Y.

Chin Med J (Engl). 2007 Feb 5;120(3):204-10.
Icariine stimulates proliferation and differentiation of human osteoblasts byincreasing production of bone morphogenetic protein 2.
Yin XX, Chen ZQ, Liu ZJ, Ma QJ, Dang GT.

Bone. 2007 Mar;40(3):685-92.
Epimedium-derived phytoestrogen exert beneficial effect on preventingsteroid-associated osteonecrosis in rabbits with inhibition of both thrombosisand lipid-deposition.
Zhang G, Qin L, Sheng H, Yeung KW, Yeung HY, Cheung WH, Griffith J, Chan CW, Lee KM, Leung KS.

Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 2006 Nov;4(6):628-33.
Prevention of bone loss by aqueous extract of Epimedii sagittatum in anovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis.
Nian H, Xu LL, Ma MH, Qin LP, Zheng HC, Zhang QY.

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2006 Mar;31(6):487-90.
Effect of Herba Epimedii flavone on the osteoblasts metabolism in vitro [Article in Chinese]
Liu YH, Zhang HY, Zang HM, Cheng JC.

Urology. 2006 Mar;67(3):631-5.
Effect of Epimedium brevicornum Maxim extract on elicitation of penile erectionin the rat.
Chen KK, Chiu JH.

Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2006 Jan;26(1):68-71.
Protective effect of epimedium flavonoids injection on experimental myocardialinfarction rats [Article in Chinese]
Huang XL, Wang W, Zhou YW.

Bone. 2006 Jun;38(6):818-25.
Flavonoids derived from herbal Epimedium Brevicornum Maxim prevent OVX-inducedosteoporosis in rats independent of its enhancement in intestinal calciumabsorption.
Zhang G, Qin L, Hung WY, Shi YY, Leung PC, Yeung HY, Leung KS.

Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2005 Dec;82(4):686-94.
Antidepressant-like effect of icariin and its possible mechanism in mice.
Pan Y, Kong L, Xia X, Zhang W, Xia Z, Jiang F.

Phytomedicine. 2005 Mar;12(3):189-93.
Osteoblastic proliferative activity of Epimedium brevicornum Maxim.
Meng FH, Li YB, Xiong ZL, Jiang ZM, Li FM.

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2004 Jun;29(6):568-9, 593.
Primary research of pharmacological effects of PEC on mice [ Article in Chinese ]
Wang LW, Liu XM, Lu GH, Gao NN, Xiao PG.

Pharmazie. 2004 Jan;59(1):61-4.
The serum of rats administered flavonoid extract from Epimedium sagittatum butnot the extract itself enhances the development of rat calvarial osteoblast-like cells in vitro.
Chen KM, Ge BF, Ma HP, Zheng RL.

Huperzine - Selected References

Return to Huperzine or Natural Remedies List or Home Page

Huperzine a improves chronic inflammation and cognitive decline in rats with cerebral hypoperfusion.
Wang J, Zhang HY, Tang XC.
J Neurosci Res. 2009 Sep 30.

[+]-Huperzine A treatment protects against N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced seizure/status epilepticus in rats.
Coleman BR, Ratcliffe RH, Oguntayo SA, Shi X, Doctor BP, Gordon RK, Nambiar MP.
Chem Biol Interact. 2008 Sep 25;175(1-3):387-95.

Huperzine A for vascular dementia
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009 Apr 15;(2):CD007365
Hao Z, Liu M, Lv D.

Huperzine A for Alzheimer's disease
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Apr 16;(2):CD005592
Li J, Wu HM, Zhou RL, Liu GJ, Dong BR.

Alternative medicine and Alzheimer disease
Neurologist. 2008 Sep;14(5):299-306
Kelley BJ, Knopman DS.

Progress in studies of huperzine A, a natural cholinesterase inhibitor from Chinese herbal medicine.
Wang R, Yan H, Tang XC.
Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2006 Jan;27(1):1-26.

L-Carnitine - Selected References

Return to L-Carnitine or Natural Remedies List or Home Page

Effect of carni Q-gel (ubiquinol and carnitine) on cytokines in patients with heart failure in the Tishcon study.
Kumar A, Singh RB, Saxena M, Niaz MA, Josh SR, Chattopadhyay P, Mechirova V, Pella D, Fedacko J.
Acta Cardiol. 2007 Aug;62(4):349-54.

A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of L-carnitine in suspected acute myocardial infarction.
Singh RB, Niaz MA, Agarwal P, Beegum R, Rastogi SS, Sachan DS.
Postgrad Med J. 1996 Jan;72(843):45-50.

[Therapy of arrhythmia induced by myocardial ischemia. Association of L-carnitine, propafenone and mexiletine]
[Article in Italian]
Mondillo S, Faglia S, D'Aprile N, Mangiacotti L, Campolo MA, Agricola E, Palazzuoli V.
Clin Ter. 1995 Dec;146(12):769-74.

[The evaluation of the antiarrhythmic activity of L-carnitine and propafenone in ischemic cardiopathy]
[Article in Italian]
Palazzuoli V, Mondillo S, Faglia S, D'Aprile N, Camporeale A, Gennari C.
Clin Ter. 1993 Feb;142(2):155-9.

Controlled study on L-carnitine therapeutic efficacy in post-infarction.
Davini P, Bigalli A, Lamanna F, Boem A.
Drugs Exp Clin Res. 1992;18(8):355-65.

[The benefits of L-carnitine therapy in essential arterial hypertension with diabetes mellitus type II]
[Article in Italian]
Digiesi V, Palchetti R, Cantini F.
Minerva Med. 1989 Mar;80(3):227-31.

L-carnitine moderately improves the exercise tolerance in chronic stable angina.
Iyer RN, Khan AA, Gupta A, Vajifdar BU, Lokhandwala YY.
J Assoc Physicians India. 2000 Nov;48(11):1050-2.

Antiarrhythmic and arrhythmogenic effects of L-carnitine in ischemia and reperfusion.
[Article in English, Russian]
Najafi M, Garjani A, Maleki N, Eteraf Oskouei T.
Bull Exp Biol Med. 2008 Aug;146(2):210-3.

Acetyl L-carnitine (ALC) treatment in elderly patients with fatigue.
Malaguarnera M, Gargante MP, Cristaldi E, Colonna V, Messano M, Koverech A, Neri S, Vacante M, Cammalleri L, Motta M.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2008 Mar-Apr;46(2):181-90.

[Clinical efficacy of combined L-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitine on idiopathic asthenospermia] [Article in Chinese]
Cheng HJ, Chen T.
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 2008 Feb;14(2):149-51.

[Level of free L-carnitine in human seminal plasma and its correlation with semen quality] [Article in Chinese]
Li K, Li W, Huang YF, Shang XJ.
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 2007 Feb;13(2):143-6.

Correlation between seminal carnitine and functional spermatozoal characteristics in men with semen dysfunction of various origins.
De Rosa M, Boggia B, Amalfi B, Zarrilli S, Vita A, Colao A, Lombardi G.
Drugs R D. 2005;6(1):1-9.

Carnitine for the treatment of idiopathic asthenospermia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
Sigman M, Glass S, Campagnone J, Pryor JL.
Fertil Steril. 2006 May;85(5):1409-14.

A placebo-controlled double-blind randomized trial of the use of combined l-carnitine and l-acetyl-carnitine treatment in men with asthenozoospermia.
Lenzi A, Sgrò P, Salacone P, Paoli D, Gilio B, Lombardo F, Santulli M, Agarwal A, Gandini L.
Fertil Steril. 2004 Jun;81(6):1578-84.

[A controlled randomized trial of the use of combined L-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitine treatment in men with oligoasthenozoospermia]
[Article in Chinese]
Li Z, Chen GW, Shang XJ, Bai WJ, Han YF, Chen B, Teng XM, Meng FH, Zhang B, Chen DN, Liu JH, Zheng XM, Cao XR, Liu Y, Zhu XB, Wang YX.
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 2005 Oct;11(10):761-4.

The effects of L-carnitine on sperm parameters in smoker and non-smoker patients with idiopathic sperm abnormalities.
Khademi A, Alleyassin A, Safdarian L, Hamed EA, Rabiee E, Haghaninezhad H.
J Assist Reprod Genet. 2005 Dec;22(11-12):395-9.

Dietary l-carnitine supplementation improves bone mineral density by suppressing bone turnover in aged ovariectomized rats.
Hooshmand S, Balakrishnan A, Clark RM, Owen KQ, Koo SI, Arjmandi BH.
Phytomedicine. 2008 Aug;15(8):595-601.

Carnitine does not improve weight loss outcomes in valproate-treated bipolar patients consuming an energy-restricted, low-fat diet.
Elmslie JL, Porter RJ, Joyce PR, Hunt PJ, Mann JI.
Bipolar Disord. 2006 Oct;8(5 Pt 1):503-7.

L-Lysine - Selected References

Return to L-Lysine or Natural Remedies List or Home Page

A multicentered study of L-lysine therapy in Herpes simplex infection.
Dermatologica. 1978;156(5):257-67.
Griffith RS, Norins AL, Kagan C.

Subjective response to L-lysine in the therapy of herpes simplex.
Walsh DE, Griffith RS, Behforooz A.
J Antimicrob Chemother. 1983 Nov;12(5):489-96.

L-Lysine prophylaxis in recurrent herpes simplex labialis: a double-blind, controlled crossover study.
Milman N, Scheibel J, Jessen O.
Acta Derm Venereol. 1980;60(1):85-7.

Success of L-lysine therapy in frequently recurrent herpes simplex infection. Treatment and prophylaxis.
Griffith RS, Walsh DE, Myrmel KH, Thompson RW, Behforooz A.
Dermatologica. 1987;175(4):183-90.

Natural remedies for Herpes simplex.
Gaby AR.
Altern Med Rev. 2006 Jun;11(2):93-101.

Risk assessment for carnitine.
Hathcock JN, Shao A.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2006 Oct;46(1):23-8.

Subjective response to lysine in the therapy of herpes simplex.
Walsh DE, Griffith RS, Behforooz A.

J Antimicrob Chemother. 1983 Nov;12(5):489-96.

US. Department of Agriculture. Agricultural Handbook, 1-23.

Maca - Selected References

Return to Maca or Natural Remedies List or Home Page

Subjective effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) extract on well-being and sexual performances in patients with mild erectile dysfunction: a randomised, double-blind clinical trial.
Zenico T, Cicero AF, Valmorri L, Mercuriali M, Bercovich E.
Andrologia. 2009 Apr;41(2):95-9.

Dording CM, Fisher L, Papakostas G, Farabaugh A, Sonawalla S, Fava M,Mischoulon D.
A double-blind, randomized, pilot dose-finding study of maca root (L. Meyenii) for the management of SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction.
CNS Neurosci Ther. 2008 Fall;14(3):182-91.

Brooks NA, Wilcox G, Walker KZ, Ashton JF, Cox MB, Stojanovska L.
Beneficial effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on psychological symptoms and measures of sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women are not related toestrogen or androgen content.
Menopause. 2008 Sep 6.

Gonzales GF, Gasco M, Malheiros-Pereira A, Gonzales-Castaeda C.
Antagonistic effect of Lepidium meyenii (red maca) on prostatic hyperplasia inadult mice.
Andrologia. 2008 Jun;40(3):179-85.

Valentová K, Stejskal D, Bartek J, Dvorácková S, Kren V, Ulrichova J, Simanek V.
Maca (Lepidium meyenii) and yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) in combination with silymarin as food supplements: in vivo safety assessment.
Food Chem Toxicol. 2008 Mar;46(3):1006-13.

Gasco M, Aguilar J, Gonzales GF.
Effect of chronic treatment with three varieties of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on reproductive parameters and DNA quantification in adult male rats.
Andrologia. 2007 Aug;39(4):151-8.

Yucra S, Gasco M, Rubio J, Nieto J, Gonzales GF.
Effect of different fractions from hydroalcoholic extract of Black Maca (Lepidiummeyenii) on testicular function in adult male rats.
Fertil Steril. 2008 May;89(5 Suppl):1461-7.

Rubio J, Dang H, Gong M, Liu X, Chen SL, Gonzales GF.
Aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of Black Maca (Lepidium meyenii) improves copolamine-induced memory impairment in mice.
Food Chem Toxicol. 2007 Oct;45(10):1882-90.

Lentz A, Gravitt K, Carson CC, Marson L.
Acute and chronic dosing of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on male rat sexual behavior.
J Sex Med. 2007 Mar;4(2):332-9; discussion 339-40.

Gonzales GF, Vasquez V, Rodriguez D, Maldonado C, Mormontoy J, Portella J,Pajuelo M, Villegas L, Gasco M.
Effect of two different extracts of red maca in male rats withtestosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia.
Asian J Androl. 2007 Mar;9(2):245-51.

Vecera R, Orolin J, Skottova N, Kazdova L, Oliyarnik O, Ulrichova J, Simanek V.
The influence of maca (Lepidium meyenii) on antioxidant status, lipid and glucosemetabolism in rat.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2007 Jun;62(2):59-63.

Gasco M, Villegas L, Yucra S, Rubio J, Gonzales GF.
Dose-response effect of Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii) on benign prostatic hyperplasia induced by testosterone enanthate.
Phytomedicine. 2007 Aug;14(7-8):460-4.

Gonzales GF, Valerio LG Jr.
Medicinal plants from Peru: a review of plants as potential agents againstcancer.
Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2006 Sep;6(5):429-44. Review.

Gonzales GF, Nieto J, Rubio J, Gasco M.
Effect of Black maca (Lepidium meyenii) on one spermatogenic cycle in rats.
Andrologia. 2006 Oct;38(5):166-72.

Rubio J, Caldas M, Davila S, Gasco M, Gonzales GF.
Effect of three different cultivars of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on learning and depression in ovariectomized mice.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2006 Jun 23;6:23.

Valentová K, Buckiová D, Kren V, Peknicová J, Ulrichová J, Simánek V.
The in vitro biological activity of Lepidium meyenii extracts.
Cell Biol Toxicol. 2006 Mar;22(2):91-9.

Rubio J, Riqueros MI, Gasco M, Yucra S, Miranda S, Gonzales GF.
Lepidium meyenii (Maca) reversed the lead acetate induced -- damage on reproductive function in male rats.
Food Chem Toxicol. 2006 Jul;44(7):1114-22.

Zhang Y, Yu L, Ao M, Jin W.
Effect of ethanol extract of Lepidium meyenii Walp. on osteoporosis in ovariectomized rat.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Apr 21;105(1-2):274-9.

Gonzales C, Rubio J, Gasco M, Nieto J, Yucra S, Gonzales GF.
Effect of short-term and long-term treatments with three ecotypes of Lepidium meyenii (MACA) on spermatogenesis in rats.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Feb 20;103(3):448-54.

Ruiz-Luna AC, Salazar S, Aspajo NJ, Rubio J, Gasco M, Gonzales GF.
Lepidium meyenii (Maca) increases litter size in normal adult female mice.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2005 May 3;3:16.

Chung F, Rubio J, Gonzales C, Gasco M, Gonzales GF.
Dose-response effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) aqueous extract on testicular function and weight of different organs in adult rats.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Apr 8;98(1-2):143-7.

Zhao J, Muhammad I, Dunbar DC, Mustafa J, Khan IA.
New alkamides from maca (Lepidium meyenii).
J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Feb 9;53(3):690-3.

Bustos-Obregon E, Yucra S, Gonzales GF.
Lepidium meyenii (Maca) reduces spermatogenic damage induced by a single dose of malathion in mice.
Asian J Androl. 2005 Mar;7(1):71-6.

Gonzales GF, Miranda S, Nieto J, Fernández G, Yucra S, Rubio J, Yi P, Gasco M.
Red maca (Lepidium meyenii) reduced prostate size in rats.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2005 Jan 20;3:5.

McKay D.
Nutrients and botanicals for erectile dysfunction: examining the evidence.
Altern Med Rev. 2004 Mar;9(1):4-16.

Gonzales GF, Gasco M, Cardova A, Chung A, Rubio J, Villegas L.
Effect of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on spermatogenesis in male rats acutely exposedto high altitude (4340 m).
J Endocrinol. 2004 Jan;180(1):87-95.

Gonzales GF, Rubio J, Chung A, Gasco M, Villegas L.
Effect of alcoholic extract of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on testicular function in male rats.
Asian J Androl. 2003 Dec;5(4):349-52.

Cui B, Zheng BL, He K, Zheng QY.
Imidazole alkaloids from Lepidium meyenii.
J Nat Prod. 2003 Aug;66(8):1101-3.

Gonzales GF, Cardova A, Vega K, Chung A, Villena A, GC.
Effect of Lepidium meyenii (Maca), a root with aphrodisiac andfertility-enhancing properties, on serum reproductive hormone levels in adulthealthy men.
J Endocrinol. 2003 Jan;176(1):163-8.

Gonzales GF, Cardova A, Vega K, Chung A, Villena A, Góñez C, Castillo S.
Effect of Lepidium meyenii (MACA) on sexual desire and its absent relationshipwith serum testosterone levels in adult healthy men.
Andrologia. 2002 Dec;34(6):367-72.

Tellez MR, Khan IA, Kobaisy M, Schrader KK, Dayan FE, Osbrink W.
Composition of the essential oil of Lepidium meyenii (Walp).
Phytochemistry. 2002 Sep;61(2):149-55.

Muhammad I, Zhao J, Dunbar DC, Khan IA.
Constituents of Lepidium meyenii 'maca'.
Phytochemistry. 2002 Jan;59(1):105-10.

Gonzales GF, Cordova A, Gonzales C, Chung A, Vega K, Villena A.
Lepidium meyenii (Maca) improved semen parameters in adult men.
Asian J Androl. 2001 Dec;3(4):301-3.

Gonzales GF, Ruiz A, Gonzales C, Villegas L, Cordova A.
Effect of Lepidium meyenii (maca) roots on spermatogenesis of male rats.
Asian J Androl. 2001 Sep;3(3):231-3.

Cicero AF, Bandieri E, Arletti R.
Lepidium meyenii Walp. improves sexual behaviour in male rats independently from its action on spontaneous locomotor activity.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2001 May;75(2-3):225-9.

Canales M, Aguilar J, Prada A, Marcelo A, Huamán C, Carbajal L.
Nutritional evaluation of Lepidium meyenii (MACA) in albino mice and theirdescendants [Spanish]
Arch Latinoam Nutr. 2000 Jun;50(2):126-33.

Magnesium - Selected References

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The effect of lowering blood pressure by magnesium supplementation in diabetic hypertensive adults with low serum magnesium levels: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.
Guerrero-Romero F, Rodríguez-Morán M.
J Hum Hypertens. 2009 Apr;23(4):245-51.

The effect of lowering blood pressure by magnesium supplementation in diabetic hypertensive adults with low serum magnesium levels: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.
Guerrero-Romero F, Rodríguez-Morán M.
J Hum Hypertens. 2009 Apr;23(4):245-51.

Prophylactic intravenous magnesium sulphate in addition to oral {beta}-blockade does not prevent atrial arrhythmias after coronary artery or valvular heart surgery: a randomized, controlled trial.
Cook RC, Humphries KH, Gin K, Janusz MT, Slavik RS, Bernstein V, Tholin M, Lee MK.
Circulation. 2009 Sep 15;120(11 Suppl):S163-9.

The efficiency of magnesium supplementation in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass: changes in serum magnesium concentrations and atrial fibrillation episodes.
Dabrowski W, Rzecki Z, Sztanke M, Visconti J, Wacinski P, Pasternak K.
Magnes Res. 2008 Dec;21(4):205-17.

Effect of single dose magnesium on arrhythmias in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery.
Hamid M, Kamal RS, Sami SA, Atiq F, Shafquat A, Naqvi HI, Khan FH.
J Pak Med Assoc. 2008 Jan;58(1):22-7.

The effects of magnesium physiological supplementation on hyperactivity in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Positive response to magnesium oral loading test.
Starobrat-Hermelin B, Kozielec T.
Magnes Res. 1997 Jun;10(2):149-56.

Assessment of magnesium levels in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Kozielec T, Starobrat-Hermelin B.
Magnes Res. 1997 Jun;10(2):143-8.

The effects of magnesium prophylaxis in migraine without aura.
Köseoglu E, Talaslioglu A, Gönül AS, Kula M.
Magnes Res. 2008 Jun;21(2):101-8.

[Therapeutic effects of magnesium in dysmenorrhea]
[Article in German]
Fontana-Klaiber H, Hogg B.
Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax. 1990 Apr 17;79(16):491-4.

[Magnesium--a new therapeutic alternative in primary dysmenorrhea]
[Article in German]
Seifert B, Wagler P, Dartsch S, Schmidt U, Nieder J.
Zentralbl Gynakol. 1989;111(11):755-60.

Prevention of atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass graft surgery using a potassium-magnesium-aspartate solution (Inzolen).
Piper SN, Kiessling AH, Suttner SW, Ducke M, Boldt J, Röhm KD.
Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2007 Oct;55(7):418-23.

Mangosteen - Selected References

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Effect of a mangosteen dietary supplement on human immune function: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
Tang YP, Li PG, Kondo M, Ji HP, Kou Y, Ou B.
J Med Food. 2009 Aug;12(4):755-63.

Panaxanthone isolated from pericarp of Garcinia mangostana L. suppresses tumor growth and metastasis of a mouse model of mammary cancer.
Doi H, Shibata MA, Shibata E, Morimoto J, Akao Y, Iinuma M, Tanigawa N, Otsuki Y.
Anticancer Res. 2009 Jul;29(7):2485-95.

Comparison of bioactive compounds content, free radical scavenging and anti-acne inducing bacteria activities of extracts from the mangosteen fruit rind at two stages of maturity.
Pothitirat W, Chomnawang MT, Supabphol R, Gritsanapan W.
Fitoterapia. 2009 Oct;80(7):442-7.

Anti-cancer effects of xanthones from pericarps of mangosteen.
Akao Y, Nakagawa Y, Iinuma M, Nozawa Y.
Int J Mol Sci. 2008 Mar;9(3):355-70.

Antibacterial activity of Thai medicinal plants against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
Chomnawang MT, Surassmo S, Wongsariya K, Bunyapraphatsara N.
Fitoterapia. 2009 Mar;80(2):102-4.

Medicinal properties of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana).
Pedraza-Chaverri J, Cárdenas-Rodríguez N, Orozco-Ibarra M, Pérez-Rojas JM.
Food Chem Toxicol. 2008 Oct;46(10):3227-39.

Mangosteen for the cancer patient: facts and myths.
Yeung S.
J Soc Integr Oncol. 2006 Summer;4(3):130-4.

Effects of herbal mouthwash containing the pericarp extract of Garcinia mangostana L on halitosis, plaque and papillary bleeding index.
Rassameemasmaung S, Sirikulsathean A, Amornchat C, Hirunrat K, Rojanapanthu P, Gritsanapan W.
J Int Acad Periodontol. 2007 Jan;9(1):19-25.

Menopause - Selected References

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Soy extract phytoestrogens with high dose of isoflavones for menopausal symptoms.
Ferrari A.
J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2009 Dec;35(6):1083-90.

Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh) in women with anxiety disorder due to menopause.
J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2009 Oct;29(5):478-83.

Treatment of menopause-associated vasomotor symptoms: position statement of The North American Menopause Society.
North American Menopause Society.
Menopause. 2004 Jan-Feb;11(1):11-33.

Milk Thistle - Selected References

Return to Milk Thistle or Natural Remedies List or Home Page

A randomized controlled trial to assess the safety and efficacy of silymarin on symptoms, signs and biomarkers of acute hepatitis.
Phytomedicine. 2009 May;16(5):391-400.

El-Kamary SS, Shardell MD, Abdel-Hamid M, Ismail S, El-Ateek M, Metwally M, Mikhail N, Hashem M, Mousa A, Aboul-Fotouh A, El-Kassas M, Esmat G, Strickland GT.


Advances in the use of milk thistle (Silybum marianum).
Post-White J, Ladas EJ, Kelly KM.
Integr Cancer Ther. 2007 Jun;6(2):104-9.

Evaluation of silibinin on the viability, migration and adhesion of the human prostate adenocarcinoma (PC-3) cell line.
Mokhtari MJ, Motamed N, Shokrgozar MA.
Cell Biol Int. 2008 Aug;32(8):888-92.

Evaluation of the cancer chemopreventive efficacy of silibinin in genetic mouse models of prostate and intestinal carcinogenesis: relationship with silibinin levels.
Verschoyle RD, Greaves P, Patel K, Marsden DA, Brown K, Steward WP, Gescher AJ.
Eur J Cancer. 2008 Apr;44(6):898-906.

Anticancer potential of silymarin: from bench to bed side.
Agarwal R, Agarwal C, Ichikawa H, Singh RP, Aggarwal BB.
Anticancer Res. 2006 Nov-Dec;26(6B):4457-98.

Milk thistle and prostate cancer: differential effects of pure flavonolignans from Silybum marianum on antiproliferative end points in human prostate carcinoma cells.
Cancer Res. 2005 May 15;65(10):4448-57.

Prostate cancer prevention by silibinin.
Singh RP, Agarwal R.
Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2004 Feb;4(1):1-11.Pedraza-Chaverri J, Cárdenas-Rodríguez N, Orozco-Ibarra M, Pérez-Rojas JM.
Food Chem Toxicol. 2008 Oct;46(10):3227-39.

A pilot study on the liver protective effect of silybin-phosphatidylcholine complex (IdB1016) in chronic active hepatitis.
Buzzelli G, Moscarella S, Giusti A, Duchini A, Marena C, Lampertico M.
Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol. 1993 Sep;31(9):456-60.

Comparative pharmacokinetics of silipide and silymarin in rats.
Morazzoni P, Montalbetti A, Malandrino S, Pifferi G.
Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 1993 Jul-Sep;18(3):289-97.

Pharmacokinetics of silybin in bile following administration of silipide and silymarin in cholecystectomy patients.
Schandalik R, Gatti G, Perucca E.
Arzneimittelforschung. 1992 Jul;42(7):964-8.

Protective activity of silipide on liver damage in rodents.
Conti M, Malandrino S, Magistretti MJ.
Jpn J Pharmacol. 1992 Dec;60(4):315-21.

Effect of silymarin and vitamin E on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in dogs.
Varzi HN, Esmailzadeh S, Morovvati H, Avizeh R, Shahriari A, Givi ME.
J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 2007 Oct;30(5):477-81.

MSM - Selected References

Return to MSM or Natural Remedies List or Home Page

Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2008 Apr 14.
Systematic review of the nutritional supplements dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) in the treatment of osteoarthritis.
Brien S, Prescott P, Bashir N, Lewith H, Lewith G.

Am Fam Physician. 2008 Jan 15;77(2):177-84.
Dietary supplements for osteoarthritis.

Gregory PJ, Sperry M, Wilson AF.
Clin Drug Investig. 2004;24(6):353-63.
Randomised, Double-Blind, Parallel, Placebo-Controlled Study of Oral Glucosamine, Methylsulfonylmethane and their Combination in Osteoarthritis.
Usha PR, Naidu MU.

J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Feb 7;55(3):1033-8.
Pharmacokinetics and distribution of [35S]methylsulfonylmethane following oral administration to rats.
Magnuson BA, Appleton J, Ames GB.

Food Chem Toxicol. 2007 Jun;45(6):977-84.
Oral developmental toxicity study of methylsulfonylmethane in rats.
Magnuson BA, Appleton J, Ryan B, Matulka RA.

Arthritis Res Ther. 2006;8(4):R127.
Osteoarthritis and nutrition. From nutraceuticals to functional foods: asystematic review of the scientific evidence.
Ameye LG, Chee WS.

Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2006 Mar;14(3):286-94.
Efficacy of methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) in osteoarthritis pain of the knee: a pilot clinical trial.
Kim LS, Axelrod LJ, Howard P, Buratovich N, Waters RF.

Anticancer Res. 2003 Jan-Feb;23(1A):453-8.
Aspirin and methylsulfonylmethane (MSM): a search for common mechanisms, with implications for cancer prevention.
Ebisuzaki K.

J Altern Complement Med. 2002 Apr;8(2):167-73.
A multicentered, open-label trial on the safety and efficacy of methylsulfonylmethane in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis.
Barrager E, Veltmann JR Jr, Schauss AG, Schiller RN.

Altern Med Rev. 2002 Feb;7(1):22-44.
Sulfur in human nutrition and applications in medicine.
Parcell S.

Muira Puama - Selected References

Return to Muira Puama or Natural Remedies List or Home Page

J Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Jul 23;118(2):300-4.
Effects of Muira puama in the chronic mild stress model: further indication ofantidepressant properties.
Piato AL, Detanico BC, Jesus JF, Lhullier FL, Nunes DS, Elisabetsky E.

Pharmazie. 2007 Oct;62(10):798-800.
In vitro breast cancer cell lethality of Brazilian plant extracts.
Suffredini IB, Paciencia ML, Frana SA, Varella AD, Younes RN.

Phytomedicine. 2007 Nov;14(11):763-9.
Antioxidant activities of Ptychopetalum olacoides ("muirapuama") in mice brain.
Siqueira IR, Fochesatto C, Torres IL, da Silva AL, Nunes DS, Elisabetsky E, NettoCA.

J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Feb 12;109(3):493-500.
Brazilian plants as possible adaptogens: an ethnopharmacological survey of books edited in Brazil.
Mendes FR, Carlini EA.

J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Feb 12;109(3):449-57.Promnesic effects of Ptychopetalum olacoides in aversive and non-aversivelearning paradigms.
da Silva AL, Piato AL, Ferreira JG, Martins BS, Nunes DS, Elisabetsky E.

Phytother Res. 2005 Jan;19(1):54-7.
Clinical toxicology study of an herbal medicinal extract of Paullinia cupana,Trichilia catigua, Ptychopetalum olacoides and Zingiber officinale (Catuama) inhealthy volunteers.
Oliveira CH, Moraes ME, Moraes MO, Bezerra FA, Abib E, De Nucci G.

J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Dec;95(2-3):199-203.
Memory retrieval improvement by Ptychopetalum olacoides in young and aging mice.
da Silva AL, Piato AL, Bardini S, Netto CA, Nunes DS, Elisabetsky E.

Life Sci. 2004 Aug 27;75(15):1897-906.
Neuroprotective effects of Ptychopetalum olacoides Bentham (Olacaceae) on oxygen and glucose deprivation induced damage in rat hippocampal slices.
Siqueira IR, Cimarosti H, Fochesatto C, Nunes DS, Salbego C, Elisabetsky E, NettoCA.

Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2003 Jun;75(3):645-50.
Ptychopetalum olacoides, a traditional Amazonian "nerve tonic", possessesanticholinesterase activity.
Siqueira IR, Fochesatto C, da Silva AL, Nunes DS, Battastini AM, Netto CA,Elisabetsky E.

J Sex Marital Ther. 2003 May-Jun;29(3):185-205.
A review of plant-derived and herbal approaches to the treatment of sexualdysfunctions.
Rowland DL, Tai W.

Phytother Res. 2002 May;16(3):223-6.
Anxiogenic properties of Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth. (Marapuama).
da Silva AL, Bardini S, Nunes DS, Elisabetsky E.

Pharmacol Res. 2002 Mar;45(3):213-20.
Inhibitory effect of herbal remedies on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-promoted Epstein-Barr virus early antigenactivation.
Kapadia GJ, Azuine MA, Tokuda H, Hang E, Mukainaka T, Nishino H, Sridhar R.

Phytother Res. 2001 Aug;15(5):416-21.
The relaxation of isolated rabbit corpus cavernosum by the herbal medicine Catuama and its constituents.
Antunes E, Gordo WM, de Oliveira JF, Teixeira CE, Hyslop S, De Nucci G.

Adv Ther. 2000 Sep-Oct;17(5):255-62.
Effects of Herbal vX [containing muira puama] on libido and sexual activity in premenopausal andpostmenopausal women.
Waynberg J, Brewer S.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Aug;72(2 Suppl):624S-36S.
Selected herbals and human exercise performance.
Bucci LR.

Nattokinase - Selected References

Return to Nattokinase or Natural Remedies List or Home Page

Amyloid-degrading ability of nattokinase from Bacillus subtilis natto.
Hsu RL, Lee KT, Wang JH, Lee LY, Chen RP.
J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Jan 28;57(2):503-8.

Enhancement of the fibrinolytic activity in plasma by oral administration of nattokinase.
Sumi H, Hamada H, Nakanishi K, Hiratani H.
Acta Haematol. 1990;84(3):139-43.

Prevention of venous thrombosis in long-haul flights with Flite Tabs: the LONFLIT-FLITE randomized, controlled trial.
Angiology. 2003 Sep-Oct;54(5):531-9.

Cesarone MR, Belcaro G, Nicolaides AN, Ricci A, Geroulakos G, Ippolito E, Brandolini R, Vinciguerra G, Dugall M, Griffin M, Ruffini I, Acerbi G, Corsi M, Riordan NH, Stuard S, Bavera P, Di Renzo A, Kenyon J, Errichi BM.

Combined nattokinase with red yeast rice but not nattokinase alone has potent effects on blood lipids in human subjects with hyperlipidemia.
Yang NC, Chou CW, Chen CY, Hwang KL, Yang YC.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(3):310-7.

Effects of nattokinase, a pro-fibrinolytic enzyme, on red blood cell aggregation and whole blood viscosity.
Pais E, Alexy T, Holsworth RE Jr, Meiselman HJ.
Clin Hemorheol Microcirc. 2006;35(1-2):139-42.

Nattokinase decreases plasma levels of fibrinogen, factor VII, and factor VIII in human subjects.
Hsia CH, Shen MC, Lin JS, Wen YK, Hwang KL, Cham TM, Yang NC.
Nutr Res. 2009 Mar;29(3):190-6.

Ask the doctor. I would like to find a safer, easier alternative to warfarin, which I have been taking for a couple of years. I have been hearing about nattokinase--can I take it in place of warfarin?
Lee T.
Harv Heart Lett. 2006 Oct;17(2):7.

Cerebellar hemorrhage provoked by combined use of nattokinase and aspirin in a patient with cerebral microbleeds.
Chang YY, Liu JS, Lai SL, Wu HS, Lan MY.
Intern Med. 2008;47(5):467-9.

Effects of nattokinase on blood pressure: a randomized, controlled trial.
Kim JY, Gum SN, Paik JK, Lim HH, Kim KC, Ogasawara K, Inoue K, Park S, Jang Y, Lee JH.
Hypertens Res. 2008 Aug;31(8):1583-8.

Policosanol - Selected References

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Nutritional supplements and serum lipids: does anything work?
McGowan MP, Proulx S.

Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2009 Nov;11(6):470-6.


Sugar cane policosanols do not reduce LDL oxidation in hypercholesterolemic individuals.

Kassis AN, Kubow S, Jones PJ.

Lipids. 2009 May;44(5):391-6. Epub 2009 Apr 1.


Lack of effect of sugar cane and sunflower seed policosanols on plasma cholesterol in rabbits.
Murphy KJ, Saint DA, Howe PR.
J Am Coll Nutr. 2008 Aug;27(4):476-84.


Sugar cane policosanol failed to lower plasma cholesterol in primitive, diet-resistant hypercholesterolaemia: a double blind, controlled study.
Francini-Pesenti F, Brocadello F, Beltramolli D, Nardi M, Caregaro L.
Complement Ther Med. 2008 Apr;16(2):61-5.


Effects of policosanol (10 mg/d) versus aspirin (100 mg/d) in patients with intermittent claudication: a 10-week, randomized, comparative study.
Illnait J, Castaño G, Alvarez E, Fernández L, Mas R, Mendoza S, Gamez R.
Angiology. 2008 Jun-Jul;59(3):269-77.

Effects of policosanol and ticlopidine in patients with intermittent claudication: a double-blinded pilot comparative study.
Castaño G, Más R, Gámez R, Fernández L, Illnait J.
Angiology. 2004 Jul-Aug;55(4):361-71.

Prostate Cancer - Selected References

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Is there a benefit from lycopene supplementation in men with prostate cancer? A systematic review.
Haseen F, Cantwell MM, O'Sullivan JM, Murray LJ.
Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2009;12(4):325-32.

[Body mass index and diet affect prostate cancer development]
López Fontana CM, Recalde Rincón GM, Messina Lombino D, Uvilla Recupero AL, Pérez Elizalde RF, López Laur JD.
Actas Urol Esp. 2009 Jul-Aug;33(7):741-6.

Serum lycopene and the risk of cancer: the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor (KIHD) study.
Karppi J, Kurl S, Nurmi T, Rissanen TH, Pukkala E, Nyyssönen K.
Ann Epidemiol. 2009 Jul;19(7):512-8.

[Tomatoes and lycopene in prevention and therapy--is there an evidence for prostate diseases?]
Ellinger S, Ellinger J, Müller SC, Stehle P.
Aktuelle Urol. 2009 Jan;40(1):37-43.

Prostate cancer and vegetable consumption.
Chan R, Lok K, Woo J.
Mol Nutr Food Res. 2009 Feb;53(2):201-16.

Can the Mediterranean diet prevent prostate cancer?
Itsiopoulos C, Hodge A, Kaimakamis M.
Mol Nutr Food Res. 2009 Feb;53(2):227-39.

Are the health attributes of lycopene related to its antioxidant function?
Erdman JW Jr, Ford NA, Lindshield BL.
Arch Biochem Biophys. 2009 Mar 15;483(2):229-35.

Diet and dietary supplement intervention trials for the prevention of prostate cancer recurrence: a review of the randomized controlled trial evidence.
Van Patten CL, de Boer JG, Tomlinson Guns ES.
J Urol. 2008 Dec;180(6):2314-21; discussion 2721-2.

Activity of Serenoa repens, lycopene and selenium on prostatic disease: evidences and hypotheses.
Magri V, Trinchieri A, Perletti G, Marras E.
Arch Ital Urol Androl. 2008 Jun;80(2):65-78.

A combination of tomato and soy products for men with recurring prostate cancer and rising prostate specific antigen.
Grainger EM, Schwartz SJ, Wang S, Unlu NZ, Boileau TW, Ferketich AK, Monk JP, Gong MC, Bahnson RR, DeGroff VL, Clinton SK.
Nutr Cancer. 2008;60(2):145-54.

Induction of apoptosis in human prostatic cancer cells with beta-glucan (Maitake mushroom polysaccharide).
Fullerton SA, Samadi AA, Tortorelis DG, Choudhury MS, Mallouh C, Tazaki H, Konno S.
Mol Urol. 2000 Spring;4(1):7-13.

Red Clover - Selected References

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Antitumor activity of herbal supplements in human prostate cancer xenografts implanted in immunodeficient mice.
Ng SS, Figg WD.
Anticancer Res. 2003 Sep-Oct;23(5A):3585-90.

Anti-androgenic action by red clover-derived dietary isoflavones reduces non-malignant prostate enlargement in aromatase knockout (ArKo) mice.
Jarred RA, McPherson SJ, Jones ME, Simpson ER, Risbridger GP.
Prostate. 2003 Jun 15;56(1):54-64.

The in vivo effect of red clover diet on ventral prostate growth in adult male mice.
Risbridger GP, Wang H, Frydenberg M, Husband A.
Reprod Fertil Dev. 2001;13(4):325-9.

Efficacy of isoflavones in relieving vasomotor menopausal symptoms - A systematic review.
Jacobs A, Wegewitz U, Sommerfeld C, Grossklaus R, Lampen A.
Mol Nutr Food Res. 2009 Sep;53(9):1084-97.

Safety and efficacy of black cohosh and red clover for the management of vasomotor symptoms: a randomized controlled trial.
Geller SE, Shulman LP, van Breemen RB, Banuvar S, Zhou Y, Epstein G, Hedayat S, Nikolic D, Krause EC, Piersen CE, Bolton JL, Pauli GF, Farnsworth NR.
Menopause. 2009 Nov-Dec;16(6):1156-66.

Resveratrol - Selected References

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Unraveling the Relationship between Grapes and Health.
Pezzuto JM, Venkatasubramanian V, Hamad M, Morris KR.
J Nutr. 2009 Jul 22.

Induction of a reversible, non-cytotoxic S-phase delay by resveratrol: implications for a mechanism of lifespan prolongation and cancer protection.
Zhou R, Fukui M, Choi HJ, Zhu BT.
Br J Pharmacol. 2009 Jun 25.

[Inhibitory effect of resveratrol on the growth of human colon cancer ls174t cells and its subcutaneously transplanted tumor in nude mice and the mechanism of action]
Chen J, Dong XS, Guo XG.
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi. 2009 Jan;31(1)

Wine, resveratrol and health: a review.
Guerrero RF, García-Parrilla MC, Puertas B, Cantos-Villar E.
Nat Prod Commun. 2009 May;4(5):635-58.

Mechanisms of apoptotic effects induced by resveratrol, dibenzoylmethane, and their analogues on human lung carcinoma cells.
Weng CJ, Yang YT, Ho CT, Yen GC.
J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Jun 24;57(12):5235-43.

Cancer prevention and treatment with resveratrol: from rodent studies to clinical trials.
Bishayee A.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila Pa). 2009 May;2(5):409-18.

Inhibition of mammary tumor growth and metastases to bone and liver by dietary grape polyphenols.
Castillo-Pichardo L, Martínez-Montemayor MM, Martínez JE, Wall KM, Cubano LA, Dharmawardhane S.
Clin Exp Metastasis. 2009;26(6):505-16.

Resveratrol inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis of osteosarcoma cells.
Li Y, Bäckesjö CM, Haldosén LA, Lindgren U.
Eur J Pharmacol. 2009 May 1;609(1-3):13-8.

Resveratrol and chemoprevention.
Goswami SK, Das DK.
Cancer Lett. 2009 Mar 2.

Significance of wine and resveratrol in cardiovascular disease: French paradox revisited.
Vidavalur R, Otani H, Singal PK, Maulik N.
Exp Clin Cardiol. 2006 Fall;11(3):217-25.

Resveratrol addiction: to die or not to die.
Shakibaei M, Harikumar KB, Aggarwal BB.
Mol Nutr Food Res. 2009 Jan;53(1):115-28.

Resveratrol: Cellular actions of a potent natural chemical that confers a diversity of health benefits.
Marques FZ, Markus MA, Morris BJ.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2009 Jun 13.

Saw Palmetto - Selected References

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A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of botanically derived inhibitors of 5-alpha-reductase in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia.
Prager N, Bickett K, French N, Marcovici G.
J Altern Complement Med. 2002 Apr;8(2):143-52.

Serenoa repens for benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Wilt T, Ishani A, Mac Donald R.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001423.
Update of: Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD001423.

Saw palmetto for benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Bent S, et al. (2006).
New England Journal of Medicine, 354(6): 557–566.

Review of recent placebo-controlled trials utilizing phytotherapeutic agents for treatment of BPH.
Lowe FC, Dreikorn K, Borkowski A, Braeckman J, Denis L, Ferrari P, Gerber G, Levin R, Perrin P, Senge T.
Prostate. 1998 Nov 1;37(3):187-93.

Long-term clinical and biologic effects of the lipidosterolic extract of Serenoa repens in patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Pytel YA, Vinarov A, Lopatkin N, Sivkov A, Gorilovsky L, Raynaud JP.
Adv Ther. 2002 Nov-Dec;19(6):297-306.

Saw palmetto and benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Gong EM, Gerber GS.
Am J Chin Med. 2004;32(3):331-8.

The role of a lipido-sterolic extract of Serenoa repens in the management of lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Gerber GS, Fitzpatrick JM.
BJU Int. 2004 Aug;94(3):338-44.

Phytotherapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Gerber GS.
Curr Urol Rep. 2002 Aug;3(4):285-91.

Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of saw palmetto in men with lower urinary tract symptoms.
Gerber GS, Kuznetsov D, Johnson BC, Burstein JD.
Urology. 2001 Dec;58(6):960-4; discussion 964-5.

Extracts from fruits of saw palmetto (Sabal serrulata) and roots of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica): viable alternatives in the medical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and associated lower urinary tracts symptoms.
Koch E.
Planta Med. 2001 Aug;67(6):489-500.

Saw palmetto and lower urinary tract symptoms: what is the latest evidence?
Avins AL, Bent S.
Curr Urol Rep. 2006 Jul;7(4):260-5.

Serenoa repens extract for benign prostate hyperplasia: a randomized controlled trial.
Willetts KE, Clements MS, Champion S, Ehsman S, Eden JA.
BJU Int. 2003 Aug;92(3):267-70.

S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM-e) - Selected References

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Evidence for S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM-e) for the treatment of major depressive disorder.
Papakostas GI.

Improvement of aggressive behavior and quality of life impairment following S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM-e) augmentation in schizophrenia.
Strous RD, Ritsner MS, Adler S, Ratner Y, Maayan R, Kotler M, Lachman H, Weizman A.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2009 Jan;19(1):14-22.

S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) as treatment for depression: a systematic review.
Williams AL, Girard C, Jui D, Sabina A, Katz DL.
Clin Invest Med. 2005 Jun;28(3):132-9.

S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe) as an adjunct for resistant major depressive disorder: an open trial following partial or nonresponse to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or venlafaxine.
Alpert JE, Papakostas G, Mischoulon D, Worthington JJ 3rd, Petersen T, Mahal Y, Burns A, Bottiglieri T, Nierenberg AA, Fava M.
J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2004 Dec;24(6):661-4.

S-adenosylmethionine (SAM-e) for the treatment of depression in people living with HIV/AIDS.
Shippy RA, Mendez D, Jones K, Cergnul I, Karpiak SE.
BMC Psychiatry. 2004 Nov 11;4:38.

Bioavailability and lack of toxicity of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe) in humans.
Gören JL, Stoll AL, Damico KE, Sarmiento IA, Cohen BM.
Pharmacotherapy. 2004 Nov;24(11):1501-7.

S-adenosyl-L-methionine restores photoreceptor function following acute retinal ischemia.
Moxon-Lester L, Takamoto K, Colditz PB, Barnett NL.
Vis Neurosci. 2009 Nov;26(5-6):429-41.

Dietary supplement S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) effects on plasma homocysteine levels in healthy human subjects: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial.
Thompson MA, Bauer BA, Loehrer LL, Cha SS, Mandrekar JN, Sood A, Wahner-Roedler DL.
J Altern Complement Med. 2009 May;15(5):523-9.

Comparative clinical trial of S-adenosylmethionine versus nabumetone for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: an 8-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, Phase IV study in Korean patients.
Kim J, Lee EY, Koh EM, Cha HS, Yoo B, Lee CK, Lee YJ, Ryu H, Lee KH, Song YW.
Clin Ther. 2009 Dec;31(12):2860-72.

S-Adenosylmethionine for osteoarthritis of the knee or hip.
Rutjes AW, Nüesch E, Reichenbach S, Jüni P.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009 Oct 7;(4):CD007321.

Exploring the mechanisms behind S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) in the treatment of osteoarthritis.
Hosea Blewett HJ.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2008 May;48(5):458-63.

S-adenosyl methionine (SAMe) versus celecoxib for the treatment of osteoarthritis symptoms: a double-blind cross-over trial. [ISRCTN36233495].
Najm WI, Reinsch S, Hoehler F, Tobis JS, Harvey PW.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2004 Feb 26;5:6.

Hepatoprotective effects of S-adenosyl-L-methionine against alcohol- and cytochrome P450 2E1-induced liver injury.
Cederbaum AI.
World J Gastroenterol. 2010 Mar 21;16(11):1366-76.

Mechanism for prevention of alcohol-induced liver injury by dietary methyl donors.
Powell CL, Bradford BU, Craig CP, Tsuchiya M, Uehara T, O'Connell TM, Pogribny IP, Melnyk S, Koop DR, Bleyle L, Threadgill DW, Rusyn I.
Toxicol Sci. 2010 May;115(1):131-9.

[Preliminary study of the use of s. adenosyl methionine in the management of male sterility] [Article in Italian]
Piacentino R, Malara D, Zaccheo F, Giobbe C, Ferrara L, Caccuri D, Marchino GL, Grio R.
Minerva Ginecol. 1991 Apr;43(4):191-3.

Effect of S-adenosylmethionine tablets on the reduction of age-related mental decline in dogs: a double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial.
Rème CA, Dramard V, Kern L, Hofmans J, Halsberghe C, Mombiela DV.
Vet Ther. 2008 Summer;9(2):69-82.

Randomized prospective comparative study of ursodeoxycholic acid and S-adenosyl-L-methionine in the treatment of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.
Binder T, Salaj P, Zima T, Vítek L.
J Perinat Med. 2006;34(5):383-91.

Selenium - Selected References

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Chemoprevention of prostate cancer.
Thompson IM, Tangen CM, Goodman PJ, Lucia MS, Klein EA.
J Urol. 2009 Aug;182(2):499-507; discussion 508.

Correlation between selenium concentrations and glutathione peroxidase activity in serum and human prostate tissue.
Takata Y, Morris JS, King IB, Kristal AR, Lin DW, Peters U.
Prostate. 2009 Jul 21.

The Outcome of Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) reveals the need for better understanding of selenium biology.
Mol Interv. 2nlm.gov009 Feb;9(1):18-21.

Effect of selenium and vitamin E on risk of prostate cancer and other cancers: the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT).Lippman SM, Klein EA, Goodman PJ, Lucia MS, Thompson IM, Ford LG, Parnes HL, Minasian LM, Gaziano JM, Hartline JA, Parsons JK, Bearden JD 3rd, Crawford ED, Goodman GE, Claudio J, Winquist E, Cook ED, Karp DD, Walther P, Lieber MM, Kristal AR, Darke AK, Arnold KB, Ganz PA, Santella RM, Albanes D, Taylor PR, Probstfield JL, Jagpal TJ, Crowley JJ, Meyskens FL Jr, Baker LH, Coltman CA Jr.
JAMA. 2009 Jan 7;301(1):39-51.

The nutritional prevention of cancer: 400 mcg per day selenium treatment.Reid ME, Duffield-Lillico AJ, Slate E, Natarajan N, Turnbull B, Jacobs E, Combs GF Jr, Alberts DS, Clark LC, Marshall JR.
Nutr Cancer. 2008;60(2):155-63.

Efficacy of selenium and/or N-acetyl-cysteine for improving semen parameters in infertile men: a double-blind, placebo controlled, randomized study.Safarinejad MR, Safarinejad S.
J Urol. 2009 Feb;181(2):741-51.

Mitochondrial glutathione peroxidase 4 disruption causes male infertility.Schneider M, Förster H, Boersma A, Seiler A, Wehnes H, Sinowatz F, Neumüller C, Deutsch MJ, Walch A, Hrabé de Angelis M, Wurst W, Ursini F, Roveri A, Maleszewski M, Maiorino M, Conrad M.
FASEB J. 2009 May 18.

X-ray fluorescence microscopy reveals the role of selenium in spermatogenesis.Kehr S, Malinouski M, Finney L, Vogt S, Labunskyy VM, Kasaikina MV, Carlson BA, Zhou Y, Hatfield DL, Gladyshev VN.
J Mol Biol. 2009 Jun 26;389(5):808-18.

Selenium Supplementation Does Not Affect Testicular Selenium Status or Semen Quality in North American Men.Hawkes WC, Alkan Z, Wong K.
J Androl. 2009 Apr 2.

Epididymis seleno-independent glutathione peroxidase 5 maintains sperm DNA integrity in mice.Chabory E, Damon C, Lenoir A, Kauselmann G, Kern H, Zevnik B, Garrel C, Saez F, Cadet R, Henry-Berger J, Schoor M, Gottwald U, Habenicht U, Drevet JR, Vernet P.
J Clin Invest. 2009 Jul;119(7):2074-85.

Potential stages for prostate cancer prevention with selenium: implications for cancer survivors.Facompre N, El-Bayoumy K.
Cancer Res. 2009 Apr 1;69(7):2699-703.

The facts and controversies about selenium.
Dodig S, Cepelak I.
Acta Pharm. 2004 Dec;54(4):261-76.

Suppression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral load with selenium supplementation: a randomized controlled trial.
Hurwitz BE, Klaus JR, Llabre MM, Gonzalez A, Lawrence PJ, Maher KJ, Greeson JM, Baum MK, Shor-Posner G, Skyler JS, Schneiderman N.
Arch Intern Med. 2007 Jan 22;167(2):148-54.

Nutritional status and serum zinc and selenium levels in Iranian HIV infected individuals.
Khalili H, Soudbakhsh A, Hajiabdolbaghi M, Dashti-Khavidaki S, Poorzare A, Saeedi AA, Sharififar R.
BMC Infect Dis. 2008 Dec 9;8:165.

[Selenium deficiency and oxidative stress in asymptomatic HIV1-infected patients in Côte d'Ivoire]
Djinhi J, Tiahou G, Zirihi G, Lohoues E, Monde A, Camara C, Sess E.
Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 2009 Feb;102(1):11-3.

Effect of selenium supplements on hemoglobin concentration and morbidity among HIV-1-infected Tanzanian women.
Kupka R, Mugusi F, Aboud S, Hertzmark E, Spiegelman D, Fawzi WW.
Clin Infect Dis. 2009 May 15;48(10):1475-8.

The antioxidant vitamins A, C, E and selenium in the treatment of arthritis: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials.
Canter PH, Wider B, Ernst E.
Rheumatology (Oxford). 2007 Aug;46(8):1223-33.

Selenium and asthma: a complex relationship.
Hoffmann PR.
Allergy. 2008 Jul;63(7):854-6.

The relationship between serum selenium levels and frequent wheeze in children.
Kocabaş CN, Adalioglu G, Coşkun T, Tuncer A, Sekerel BE.
Turk J Pediatr. 2006 Oct-Dec;48(4):308-12.

Serrapeptase - Selected References

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Effect of the proteolytic enzyme serrapeptase in patients with chronic airway disease.
Nakamura S, Hashimoto Y, Mikami M, Yamanaka E, Soma T, Hino M, Azuma A, Kudoh S.
Respirology. 2003 Sep;8(3):316-20.

Effect of the proteolytic enzyme serrapeptase on swelling, pain and trismus after surgical extraction of mandibular third molars.
Al-Khateeb TH, Nusair Y.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2008 Mar;37(3):264-8.

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study comparing the efficacy and safety of paracetamol, serratiopeptidase, ibuprofen and betamethasone using the dental impaction pain model.
Chopra D, Rehan HS, Mehra P, Kakkar AK.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2009 Apr;38(4):350-5.

Evaluation of Serratia peptidase in acute or chronic inflammation of otorhinolaryngology pathology: a multicentre, double-blind, randomized trial versus placebo.
Mazzone A, Catalani M, Costanzo M, Drusian A, Mandoli A, Russo S, Guarini E, Vesperini G.
J Int Med Res. 1990 Sep-Oct;18(5):379-88.

[Clinical study of the efficacy of and tolerance to seaprose S in inflammatory venous disease. Controlled study versus serratio-peptidase]
[Article in Italian]
Bracale G, Selvetella L.
Minerva Cardioangiol. 1996 Oct;44(10):515-24.

A preliminary trial of serratiopeptidase in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome.
Panagariya A, Sharma AK.
J Assoc Physicians India. 1999 Dec;47(12):1170-2.

Skin Tags - Selected References

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Is there any relation between serum insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I in non-diabetic patients with skin tag?
Jowkar F, Fallahi A, Namazi MR.
Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2010 Jan;24(1):73-4.
The metabolic profile in patients with skin tags.
Sari R, Akman A, Alpsoy E, Balci MK.Clin Exp Med. 2009 Dec 24.

New mechanical device for effective removal of skin tags in routine health care.
Fredriksson CH, Ilias M, Anderson CD.
Dermatol Online J. 2009 Feb 15;15(2):9.

Friction induced skin tags.
Allegue F, Fachal C, Pérez-Pérez L.
Dermatol Online J. 2008 Mar 15;14(3):18.

Human papillomavirus and skin tags: is there any association?
Gupta S, Aggarwal R, Gupta S, Arora SK.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2008 May-Jun;74(3):222-5.

Fibroepithelial papillomatosis ("skin tags") in Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome.
Kirby EJ, Beals DA.
J Pediatr Surg. 2008 Apr;43(4):e21-6.

Screening of glucose/insulin metabolic alterations in men with multiple skin tags on the neck.
Sudy E, Urbina F, Maliqueo M, Sir T.
J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2008 Oct;6(10):852-5, 852-6.

Skin tag as a cutaneous marker for impaired carbohydrate metabolism: a case-control study.
Rasi A, Soltani-Arabshahi R, Shahbazi N.
Int J Dermatol. 2007 Nov;46(11):1155-9.

St. John's Wort - Selected References

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Kava and St. John's Wort: Current Evidence for Use in Mood and Anxiety Disorders.
Sarris J, Kavanagh DJ.
J Altern Complement Med. 2009 Jul 20.

Hypericum perforatum L. (St John's wort) extract Ze 117 inhibits dopamine re-uptake in rat striatal brain slices. An implication for use in smoking cessation treatment?
Ruedeberg C, Wiesmann UN, Brattstroem A, Honegger UE.
Phytother Res. 2009 Jul 7.

Depression in children and adolescents.
Hazell P.
Clin Evid (Online). 2009 Jan 7;2009. pii: 1008.C

A proof of concept randomised placebo controlled factorial trial to examine the efficacy of St John's wort for smoking cessation and chromium to prevent weight gain on smoking cessation.
Parsons A, Ingram J, Inglis J, Aveyard P, Johnstone E, Brown K, Franklin M, Bermudez I.
Drug Alcohol Depend. 2009 Jun 1;102(1-3):116-22.

Long-term effects of St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) treatment: a 1-year safety study in mild to moderate depression.
Brattström A.
Phytomedicine. 2009 Apr;16(4):277-83.

St John's wort for major depression.
Linde K, Berner MM, Kriston L.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Oct 8;(4):CD000448.

Hypericum perforatum with Vitex agnus-castus in menopausal symptoms: a randomized, controlled trial.
van Die MD, Burger HG, Bone KM, Cohen MM, Teede HJ.
Menopause. 2009 Jan-Feb;16(1):156-63.

Treatment of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) with hypericum extract.
Kasper S.
Pharmacopsychiatry. 1997 Sep;30 Suppl 2:89-93.

Hypericum in the treatment of seasonal affective disorders.
Martinez B, Kasper S, Ruhrmann S, Möller HJ.
J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 1994 Oct;7 Suppl 1:S29-33.



Stevia- Selected References

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Safety evaluation of aqueous extracts from Aegle marmelos and Stevia rebaudiana on reproduction of female rats.
Saenphet K, Aritajat S, Saenphet S, Manosroi J, Manosroi A.
Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2006;37 Suppl 3:203-5.

Genotoxicity studies on a high-purity rebaudioside A preparation.
Williams LD, Burdock GA.
Food Chem Toxicol. 2009 May 8

Subchronic toxicity of rebaudioside A.
Curry LL, Roberts A.
Food Chem Toxicol. 2008 Jul;46 Suppl 7:S11-20.

Overview: the history, technical function and safety of rebaudioside A, a naturally occurring steviol glycoside, for use in food and beverages.
Carakostas MC, Curry LL, Boileau AC, Brusick DJ.
Food Chem Toxicol. 2008 Jul;46 Suppl 7:S1-S10. Review.

A critical review of the genetic toxicity of steviol and steviol glycosides.
Brusick DJ.
Food Chem Toxicology 2008:46 Supplement 7:S83-91.

A 90-day oral (dietary) toxicity study of rebaudioside A in Sprague-Dawley rats.
Nikiforov AI, Eapen AK.
Int J Toxicol. 2008 Jan-Feb;27(1):65-80.

Safety evaluation of aqueous extracts from Aegle marmelos and Stevia rebaudiana on reproduction of female rats.
Saenphet K, Aritajat S, Saenphet S, Manosroi J, Manosroi A.
Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2006;37 Suppl 3:203-5.

[Genotoxicity studies ofsteviol extract and steviol by the comet assay]
Sekihashi K, Saitoh H, Sasaki Y.
J Toxicol Sci. 2002 Dec;27 Suppl 1:1-8. Japanese.

Stevioside.
Geuns JM.
Phytochemistry. 2003 Nov;64(5):913-21. Review.

Effect of stevioside on growth and reproduction.
Yodyingyuad V, Bunyawong S.
Hum Reprod. 1991 Jan;6(1):158-65.

Evaluation of the genotoxicity of stevioside and steviol using six in vitro and one in vivo mutagenicity assays.
Matsui M, Matsui K, Kawasaki Y,
Mutagenesis 1996;11:573-9.

Effects of chronic administration of Stevia rebaudiana on fertility in rats.
Melis MS.
J Ethnopharmacology 1999:157-61.

Apparent lack of pharmacological effect of steviol glycosides used as sweeteners in humans. A pilot study of repeated exposures in some normotensive and hypotensive individuals and in Type 1 and Type 2 diabetics.
Barriocanal LA, Palacios M, Benitez G, Benitez S, Jimenez JT, Jimenez N, Rojas V.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2008 Jun;51(1):37-41.


Taurine - Selected References

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Improved cycling time-trial performance after ingestion of a caffeine energy drink.
Ivy JL, Kammer L, Ding Z, Wang B, Bernard JR, Liao YH, Hwang J.
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2009 Feb;19(1):61-78.

Caffeine and taurine enhance endurance performance.
Imagawa TF, Hirano I, Utsuki K, Horie M, Naka A, Matsumoto K, Imagawa S.
Int J Sports Med. 2009 Jul;30(7):485-8.

Protection by taurine of rat brain cortical slices against oxygen glucose deprivation- and reoxygenation-induced damage.
Ricci L, Valoti M, Sgaragli G, Frosini M.
Eur J Pharmacol. 2009 Aug 18.

The potential protective effects of taurine on coronary heart disease.
Wójcik OP, Koenig KL, Zeleniuch-Jacquotte A, Costa M, Chen Y.
Atherosclerosis. 2009 Jun 11.

The potential health benefits of taurine in cardiovascular disease.
Xu YJ, Arneja AS, Tappia PS, Dhalla NS.
Exp Clin Cardiol. 2008 Summer;13(2):57-65.

Improved cycling time-trial performance after ingestion of a caffeine energy drink.
Ivy JL, Kammer L, Ding Z, Wang B, Bernard JR, Liao YH, Hwang J.
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2009 Feb;19(1):61-78.

The effect of taurine depletion on the contractile properties and fatigue in fast-twitch skeletal muscle of the mouse.
Hamilton EJ, Berg HM, Easton CJ, Bakker AJ.
Amino Acids. 2006 Oct;31(3):273-8.

Optimal and effective oral dose of taurine to prolong exercise performance in rat.
Miyazaki T, Matsuzaki Y, Ikegami T, Miyakawa S, Doy M, Tanaka N, Bouscarel B.
Amino Acids. 2004 Dec;27(3-4):291-8.

Effects of taurine administration in rat skeletal muscles on exercise.
Yatabe Y, Miyakawa S, Miyazaki T, Matsuzaki Y, Ochiai N.
J Orthop Sci. 2003;8(3):415-9.

The cytoprotective role of taurine in exercise-induced muscle injury.
Dawson R Jr, Biasetti M, Messina S, Dominy J.
Amino Acids. 2002 Jun;22(4):309-24.

The effects of red bull energy drink on human performance and mood.
Alford C, Cox H, Wescott R.
Amino Acids. 2001;21(2):139-50.

The influence of a taurine containing drink on cardiac parameters before and after exercise measured by echocardiography.
Baum M, Weiss M.
Amino Acids. 2001;20(1):75-82.



Tea Tree Oil - Selected References

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The battle against multi-resistant strains: Renaissance of antimicrobial essential oils as a promising force to fight hospital-acquired infections.
Warnke PH, Becker ST, Podschun R, Sivananthan S, Springer IN, Russo PA, Wiltfang J, Fickenscher H, Sherry E.
J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2009 Oct;37(7):392-7.

Successful topical treatment of hand warts in a paediatric patient with tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia).
Millar BC, Moore JE.
Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2008 Nov;14(4):225-7.

The efficacy of 5% topical tea tree oil gel in mild to moderate acne vulgaris: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study.
Enshaieh S, Jooya A, Siadat AH, Iraji F.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2007 Jan-Feb;73(1):22-5.

Tea tree oil reduces histamine-induced skin inflammation.
Koh KJ, Pearce AL, Marshman G, Finlay-Jones JJ, Hart PH.
Br J Dermatol.2002 Dec;147(6):1212-7.

Tea tree oil: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials.
Ernst E, Huntley A.
Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd. 2000 Feb;7(1):17-20.

Growth inhibition of pathogenic bacteria and some yeasts by selected essential oils and survival of L. monocytogenes and C. albicans in apple-carrot juice.
Irkin R, Korukluoglu M.
Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2009 Apr;6(3):387-94.

Antiviral activity of Australian tea tree oil and eucalyptus oil against herpes simplex virus in cell culture.
Schnitzler P, Schön K, Reichling J.
Pharmazie. 2001 Apr;56(4):343-7.

In vivo activity of terpinen-4-ol, the main bioactive component of Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel (tea tree) oil against azole-susceptible and -resistant human pathogenic Candida species.
Mondello F, De Bernardis F, Girolamo A, Cassone A, Salvatore G.
BMC Infect Dis. 2006 Nov 3;6:158.

The efficacy of Aloe vera, tea tree oil and saliva as first aid treatment for partial thickness burn injuries.
Cuttle L, Kempf M, Kravchuk O, George N, Liu PY, Chang HE, Mill J, Wang XQ, Kimble RM.
Burns.2008 Dec;34(8):1176-82.

Acaricidal activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil: in vitro sensitivity of sarcoptes scabiei var hominis to terpinen-4-ol.
Walton SF, McKinnon M, Pizzutto S, Dougall A, Williams E, Currie BJ.
Arch Dermatol. 2004 May;140(5):563-6.

Studies in vitro on the relative efficacy of current acaricides for Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis.
Walton SF, Myerscough MR, Currie BJ.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2000 Jan-Feb;94(1):92-6.

A comparison of botanical and synthetic substances commonly used to prevent head lice (Pediculus humanus var. capitis) infestation.
Canyon DV, Speare R.
Int J Dermatol. 2007 Apr;46(4):422-6.

Development of a paw paw herbal shampoo for the removal of head lice.
McCage CM, Ward SM, Paling CA, Fisher DA, Flynn PJ, McLaughlin JL.
Phytomedicine. 2002 Dec;9(8):743-8.

Treatment of interdigital tinea pedis with 25% and 50% tea tree oil solution: a randomized, placebo-controlled, blinded study.
Satchell AC, Saurajen A, Bell C, Barnetson RS.
Australas J Dermatol. 2002 Aug;43(3):175-8.

Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil gel (6%) for the treatment of recurrent herpes labialis.
Carson CF, Ashton L, Dry L, Smith DW, Riley TV.
J Antimicrob Chemother. 2001 Sep;48(3):450-1.


Toothache - Selected References

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Toothache pain: behavioral impact and self-care strategies.
Cohen LA, Bonito AJ, Akin DR, Manski RJ, Macek MD, Edwards RR, Cornelius LJ.
Spec Care Dentist. 2009 Mar-Apr;29(2):85-95.

Effect of education and guidelines for treatment of uncomplicated dental pain on patient and provider behavior.
Ma M, Lindsell CJ, Jauch EC, Pancioli AM.
Ann Emerg Med. 2004 Oct;44(4):323-9.

The dynamics of toothache pain and dental services utilization: 24-month incidence.
Duncan RP, Gilbert GH, Peek CW, Heft MW.
J Public Health Dent. 2003 Fall;63(4):227-34.

Knowledge of dental health and diseases among dental patients, a multicentre study in Saudi Arabia.
Almas K, Albaker A, Felembam N.
Indian J Dent Res. 2000 Oct-Dec;11(4):145-55.



Tribulus Terrestris - Selected References

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Effects of Tribulus terrestris on endocrine sensitive organs in male and female Wistar rats.
Martino-Andrade AJ, Morais RN, Spercoski KM, Rossi SC, Vechi MF, Golin M, Lombardi NF, Greca CS, Dalsenter PR.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Jan 8;127(1):165-70.

The influence of the Tribulus terrestris extract on the parameters of the functional preparadness and athletes' organism homeostase.
Milasius K, Dadeliene R, Skernevicius J.
Fiziol Zh. 2009;55(5):89-96.

J Nat Prod. 2008 Sep;71(9):1513-7.
Potent inhibition of human phosphodiesterase-5 by icariin derivatives.
Dell'Agli M, Galli GV, Dal Cero E, Belluti F, Matera R, Zironi E, Pagliuca G, Bosisio E.

Phytomedicine. 2008 Jan;15(1-2):44-54.
The hormonal effects of Tribulus terrestris and its role in the management of male erectile dysfunction--an evaluation using primates, rabbit and rat.
Gauthaman K, Ganesan AP.

Altern Med Rev. 2004 Mar;9(1):4-16.
Nutrients and botanicals for erectile dysfunction: examining the evidence.
McKay D.

Int J Androl. 2000;23 Suppl 2:82-4.
Phytochemicals and the breakthrough of traditional herbs in the management of sexual dysfunctions.
Adimoelja A.

Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2000 Jan;29(1):22-6.
Proerectile pharmacological effects of Tribulus terrestris extract on the rabbit corpus cavernosum.
Adaikan PG, Gauthaman K, Prasad RN, Ng SC.

Int Braz J Urol. 2007 Jul-Aug;33(4):554-8; discussion 558-9.
Free serum testosterone level in male rats treated with Tribulus alatus extracts.
El-Tantawy WH, Temraz A, El-Gindi OD.

J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Oct 3;101(1-3):319-23.
The aphrodisiac herb Tribulus terrestris does not influence the androgen production in young men.
Neychev VK, Mitev VI.

J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Jan 4;96(1-2):127-32.
Effect of Tribulus terrestris on nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase activity and androgen receptors in rat brain.
Gauthaman K, Adaikan PG.

J Altern Complement Med. 2003 Apr;9(2):257-65.
Sexual effects of puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris) extract (protodioscin): an evaluation using a rat model.
Gauthaman K, Ganesan AP, Prasad RN.

Life Sci. 2002 Aug 9;71(12):1385-96.
Aphrodisiac properties of Tribulus Terrestris extract (Protodioscin) in normal and castrated rats.
Gauthaman K, Adaikan PG, Prasad RN.

Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2000 Jan;29(1):22-6.
Proerectile pharmacological effects of Tribulus terrestris extract on the rabbit corpus cavernosum.
Adaikan PG, Gauthaman K, Prasad RN, Ng SC.

Forensic Sci Int. 2008 Jun 10;178(1):e7-10. Epub 2008 Feb 20.
Short term impact of Tribulus terrestris intake on doping control analysis of endogenous steroids.
Saudan C, Baume N, Emery C, Strahm E, Saugy M.

J Strength Cond Res. 2007 May;21(2):348-53.
The effect of five weeks of Tribulus terrestris supplementation on muscle strength and body composition during preseason training in elite rugby league players.
Rogerson S, Riches CJ, Jennings C, Weatherby RP, Meir RA, Marshall-Gradisnik SM.

Iowa Orthop J. 2001;21:43-8.
Use of nutritional supplements by high school football and volleyball players.
Mason MA, Giza M, Clayton L, Lonning J, Wilkerson RD.

Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2000 Sep;10(3):340-59.
Effects of anabolic precursors on serum testosterone concentrations and adaptations to resistance training in young men.
Brown GA, Vukovich MD, Reifenrath TA, Uhl NL, Parsons KA, Sharp RL, King DS.

Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2000;10:208-15.
The effects of Tribulus terrestris on body composition and exercise performance in resistance-trained males.
Antonio J, Uelmen J, Rodriguez R, Earnest C.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Aug;72(2 Suppl):624S-36S.
Selected herbals and human exercise performance.
Bucci LR.

Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 1990;10:85-7.
406 cases of angina pectoris in coronary heart disease treated with saponin of Tribulus terrestris.
Wang B, Ma L, Liu T.

Indian J Exp Biol. 2007 Sep;45(9):785-90.
Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of alcoholic extract of Tribulus alatus in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: a comparative study with T. terrestris (Caltrop).
El-Tantawy WH, Hassanin LA.

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006 Nov;1084:391-401.
The protective effect of Tribulus terrestris in diabetes.
Amin A, Lotfy M, Shafiullah M, Adeghate E.

Zhong Yao Cai. 2002 Jun;25(6):420-2.
[Hypoglycemic effect of saponin from T. terrestris] [Article in Chinese]
Li M, Qu W, Wang Y, Wan H, Tian C.

Phytomedicine 2002;9:753-6.
Tribulosin and beta-sitosterol-D-glucoside, the anthelmintic principles of Tribulus terrestris.
Deepak M, Dipankar G, Prashanth D, et al.

Reprod Fertil Dev 1992;4:135-44.
Some effects of feeding Tribulus terrestris, Ipomoea lonchophylla and the seed of Abelmoschus ficulneus on fetal development and the outcome of pregnancy in sheep.
Walker D, Bird A, Flora T, O'Sullivan B


Tryptophan - Selected References

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Mood and cortisol responses following tryptophan-rich hydrolyzed protein and acute stress in healthy subjects with high and low cognitive reactivity to depression.
Firk C, Markus CR.
Clin Nutr. 2009 Jun;28(3):266-71.

Tryptophan supplementation induces a positive bias in the processing of emotional material in healthy female volunteers.
Murphy SE, Longhitano C, Ayres RE, Cowen PJ, Harmer CJ.
Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2006 Jul;187(1):121-30.

Preliminary randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of tryptophan combined with fluoxetine to treat major depressive disorder: antidepressant and hypnotic effects.
Levitan RD, Shen JH, Jindal R, Driver HS, Kennedy SH, Shapiro CM.
J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2000 Sep;25(4):337-46.

A placebo-controlled clinical trial of L-tryptophan in premenstrual dysphoria.
Steinberg S, Annable L, Young SN, Liyanage N.
Biol Psychiatry. 1999 Feb 1;45(3):313-20.

Tryptophan supplementation induces a positive bias in the processing of emotional material in healthy female volunteers.
Murphy SE, Longhitano C, Ayres RE, Cowen PJ, Harmer CJ.
Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2006 Jul;187(1):121-30.

Preliminary randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of tryptophan combined with fluoxetine to treat major depressive disorder: antidepressant and hypnotic effects.
Levitan RD, Shen JH, Jindal R, Driver HS, Kennedy SH, Shapiro CM.
J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2000 Sep;25(4):337-46.

Vegetarian diet in the treatment of fibromyalgia.
Azad KA, Alam MN, Haq SA, Nahar S, Chowdhury MA, Ali SM, Ullah AK.
Bangladesh Med Res Counc Bull. 2000 Aug;26(2):41-7.

Double-blind study of 5-hydroxytryptophan versus placebo in the treatment of primary fibromyalgia syndrome.
Caruso I, Sarzi Puttini P, Cazzola M, Azzolini V.
J Int Med Res. 1990 May-Jun;18(3):201-9.

Tryptophan depletion increases nausea, headache and photophobia in migraine sufferers.
Drummond PD.
Cephalalgia. 2006 Oct;26(10):1225-33.

Protein source tryptophan versus pharmaceutical grade tryptophan as an efficacious treatment for chronic insomnia.
Hudson C, Hudson SP, Hecht T, MacKenzie J.
Nutr Neurosci. 2005 Apr;8(2):121-7.

Treatment of severe chronic insomnia with L-tryptophan: results of a double-blind cross-over study.
Demisch K, Bauer J, Georgi K, Demisch L.
Pharmacopsychiatry. 1987 Nov;20(6):242-4.

Protein-source tryptophan as an efficacious treatment for social anxiety disorder: a pilot study.
Hudson C, Hudson S, MacKenzie J.
Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2007 Sep;85(9):928-32.


Turmeric - Selected References

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Curcumin as a possible lead compound against hormone-independent, multidrug-resistant breast cancer.
Labbozzetta M, Notarbartolo M, Poma P, Maurici A, Inguglia L, Marchetti P, Rizzi M, Baruchello R, Simoni D, D'Alessandro N.
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009 Feb;1155:278-83.

Inhibition of Propionibacterium acnes-induced mediators of inflammation by Indian herbs.
Jain A, Basal E.
Phytomedicine. 2003 Jan;10(1):34-8.

Correction of the CF defect by curcumin: hypes and disappointments.
Mall M, Kunzelmann K.
Bioessays. 2005 Jan;27(1):9-13.

Oncol Res. 2008;17(6):257-67.
Therapeutic efficacy of curcumin/TRAIL combination regimen for hormone-refractory prostate cancer.
Andrzejewski T, Deeb D, Gao X, Danyluk A, Arbab AS, Dulchavsky SA, Gautam SC.

Selective protection of curcumin against carbon tetrachloride-induced inactivation of hepatic cytochrome P450 isozymes in rats.
Sugiyama T, Nagata J, Yamagishi A, Endoh K, Saito M, Yamada K, Yamada S, Umegaki K.
Life Sci. 2006 Apr 4;78(19):2188-93.

Anticancer potential of curcumin: preclinical and clinical studies.
Aggarwal BB, Kumar A, Bharti AC.
Anticancer Res. 2003 Jan-Feb;23(1A):363-98.

Curcumin, a major constituent of turmeric, corrects cystic fibrosis defects.
Egan ME, Pearson M, Weiner SA, Rajendran V, Rubin D, Glöckner-Pagel J, Canny S, Du K, Lukacs GL, Caplan MJ.
Science. 2004 Apr 23;304(5670):600-2.

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2002;11(4):314-8.
Effect of different curcumin dosages on human gall bladder.
Rasyid A, Rahman AR, Jaalam K, Lelo A.

Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic study of oral Curcuma extract in patients with colorectal cancer.
Sharma RA, McLelland HR, Hill KA, Ireson CR, Euden SA, Manson MM, Pirmohamed M, Marnett LJ, Gescher AJ, Steward WP.
Clin Cancer Res. 2001 Jul;7(7):1894-900.

J Ethnopharmacol. 1991 May-Jun;33(1-2):91-5.
Treatment of osteoarthritis with a herbomineral formulation: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study.
Kulkarni RR, Patki PS, Jog VP, Gandage SG, Patwardhan B.

Curcumin: preventive and therapeutic properties in laboratory studies and clinical trials.
Strimpakos AS, Sharma RA.
Antioxid Redox Signal. 2008 Mar;10(3):511-45.

Randomized double blind study of Curcuma domestica Val. for dyspepsia.
Thamlikitkul V, Bunyapraphatsara N, Dechatiwongse T, Theerapong S, Chantrakul C, Thanaveerasuwan T, Nimitnon S, Boonroj P, Punkrut W, Gingsungneon V, et al.
J Med Assoc Thai. 1989 Nov;72(11):613-20.

Protective and therapeutic effects of Curcuma xanthorrhiza on hepatotoxin-induced liver damage.
Lin SC, Lin CC, Lin YH, Supriyatna S, Teng CW.
Am J Chin Med. 1995;23(3-4):243-54.


Valerian - Selected References

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Taibi DM, Vitiello MV, Barsness S, Elmer GW, Anderson GD, Landis CA.
A randomized clinical trial of valerian fails to improve self-reported, polysomnographic, and actigraphic sleep in older women with insomnia.
Sleep Med. 2008 May 13.

Sood A, Sood R, Brinker FJ, Mann R, Loehrer LL, Wahner-Roedler DL.
Potential for interactions between dietary supplements and prescription medications.
Am J Med. 2008 Mar;121(3):207-11.

Gooneratne NS.
Complementary and alternative medicine for sleep disturbances in older adults.
Clin Geriatr Med. 2008 Feb;24(1):121-38, viii

Oxman AD, Flottorp S, Håvelsrud K, Fretheim A, Odgaard-Jensen J, Austvoll-Dahlgren A, Carling C, Pallesen S, Bjorvatn B.Bliwise DL, Ansari FP.

Dimpfel W, Suter A.
Sleep Improving Effects of a Single Dose Administration of a Valerian/Hops Fluid Extract - A Double Blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Sleep-EEG Study in a Parallel Design Using Electrohypnograms.
Eur J Med Res. 2008 May 26;13(5):200-4.

Meolie AL, Rosen C, Kristo D, Kohrman M, Gooneratne N, Aguillard RN, Fayle R, Troell R, Townsend D, Claman D, Hoban T, Mahowald M; Clinical Practice Review Committee; American Academy of Sleep Medicine.
Oral nonprescription treatment for insomnia: an evaluation of products with limited evidence.
J Clin Sleep Med. 2005 Apr 15;1(2):173-87.

Insomnia associated with valerian and melatonin usage in the 2002
National Health Interview Survey.
Sleep. 2007 Jul 1;30(7):881-4.

A televised, web-based randomised trial of an herbal remedy (valerian) for insomnia.
PLoS ONE. 2007 Oct 17;2(10):e1040.

Taibi DM, Landis CA, Petry H, Vitiello MV.
A systematic review of valerian as a sleep aid: safe but not effective.
Sleep Med Rev. 2007 Jun;11(3):209-30

Tokunaga S, Takeda Y, Niimoto T, Nishida N, Kubo T, Ohno T, Matsuura Y, Kawahara Y, Shinomiya K, Kamei C.
Effect of valerian extract preparation (BIM) on the sleep-wake cycle in rats.
Biol Pharm Bull. 2007 Feb;30(2):363-6.

Bent S, Padula A, Moore D, Patterson M, Mehling W.
Valerian for sleep: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Am J Med. 2006 Dec;119(12):1005-12.

Miyasaka LS, Atallah AN, Soares BG.
Valerian for anxiety disorders.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Oct 18;(4):CD004515.

Müller SF, Klement S.
A combination of valerian and lemon balm is effective in the treatment of restlessness and dyssomnia in children.
Phytomedicine. 2006 Jun;13(6):383-7.

Willey LB, Mady SP, Cobaugh DJ, Wax PM.
Valerian[Valeriana edulis] overdose: a case report.
Vet Hum Toxicol 1995;37:364-5

Leathwood PD, Chauffard F, Heck E, Munoz-Box R.
Aqueous extract of valerian root (Valeriana officinalis L.) improves sleep quality in man.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1982;17:65-71.

Leathwood PD, Chauffard F.
Aqueous extract of valerian[Valeriana edulis] reduces latency to fall asleep in man.
Planta Med 1985;2:144-8.

Francis AJ, Dempster RJ.
Effect of valerian, Valeriana edulis, on sleep difficulties in children with intellectual deficits: randomised trial.
Phytomedicine 2002;9:273-9.

Glass JR, Sproule BA, Herrmann N, et al.
Acute pharmacological effects of temazepam, diphenhydramine, and valerian in healthy elderly subjects.
J Clin Psychopharmacol 2003;23:260-8.

Morin CM, Koetter U, Bastien C, et al.
Valerian-hops combination and diphenhydramine for treating insomnia: a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial.
Sleep 2005;28:1465-71.

Lindahl O, Lindwall L.
Double blind study of a valerian preparation.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1989 Apr;32(4):1065-6.

Taibi DM, Vitiello MV, Barsness S, Elmer GW, Anderson GD, Landis CA
A randomized clinical trial of valerian fails to improve self-reported, polysomnographic, and actigraphic sleep in older women with insomnia.
Sleep Med. 2008 May 13.


Vitamin C - Selected References

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Vitamin C supplements and the risk of age-related cataract: a population-based prospective cohort study in women.
Rautiainen S, Lindblad BE, Morgenstern R, Wolk A.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Nov 18.

Supplementation of vitamin E, vitamin C, and zinc attenuates oxidative stress in burned children: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study.
Barbosa E, Faintuch J, Machado Moreira EA, Gonçalves da Silva VR, Lopes Pereima MJ, Martins Fagundes RL, Filho DW.
J Burn Care Res. 2009 Sep-Oct;30(5):859-66.

Vitamin C intake attenuates the degree of experimental atherosclerosis induced by periodontitis in the rat by decreasing oxidative stress.
Ekuni D, Tomofuji T, Sanbe T, Irie K, Azuma T, Maruyama T, Tamaki N, Murakami J, Kokeguchi S, Yamamoto T.
Arch Oral Biol. 2009 May;54(5):495-502.

Changes in antioxidant status, blood pressure, and lymphocyte DNA damage from grape juice supplementation.
Park YK, Lee SH, Park E, Kim JS, Kang MH.
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009 Aug;1171:385-90.

Vitamin supplementation for preventing miscarriage.
Rumbold A, Middleton P, Crowther CA.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005 Apr 18;(2):CD004073.

Role of male factor in early recurrent embryo loss: do antioxidants have any effect?
Gil-Villa AM, Cardona-Maya W, Agarwal A, Sharma R, Cadavid A.
Fertil Steril. 2009 Aug;92(2):565-71.

Vitamins and perinatal outcomes among HIV-negative women in Tanzania.
Fawzi WW, Msamanga GI, Urassa W, Hertzmark E, Petraro P, Willett WC, Spiegelman D.
N Engl J Med. 2007 Apr 5;356(14):1423-31.



Vitamin E - Selected References

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Doxorubicin-induced hair loss in the Angora rabbit: a study of treatments to protect against the hair loss.
Powis G, Kooistra KL.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 1987;20(4):291-6.

Depletion of vitamin E increases Abeta accumulation by decreasing its clearances from brain and blood in a mouse model of Alzheimer disease.
Nishida Y, Ito S, Ohtsuki S, Yamamoto N, Takahashi T, Iwata N, Jishage KI, Yamada H, Sasaguri H, Yokota S, Piao W, Tomimitsu H, Saido TC, Yanagisawa K, Terasaki T, Mizusawa H, Yokota T.
J Biol Chem. 2009 Aug 13.

A randomised controlled trial of vitamin E in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea.
Ziaei S, Zakeri M, Kazemnejad A.
BJOG. 2005 Apr;112(4):466-9.

Influence of oxidants and anti-oxidants on semen parameters in infertile males.
Patel S, Panda S, Nanda R, Mangaraj M, Mohapatra PC.
J Indian Med Assoc. 2009 Feb;107(2):78-80, 82.

Role of male factor in early recurrent embryo loss: do antioxidants have any effect?
Gil-Villa AM, Cardona-Maya W, Agarwal A, Sharma R, Cadavid A.
Fertil Steril. 2009 Aug;92(2):565-71.

Beneficial effects of vitamin E in sperm functions in the rat after spinal cord injury.
Wang S, Wang G, Barton BE, Murphy TF, Huang HF.
J Androl. 2007 Mar-Apr;28(2):334-41.

Antioxidant intake is associated with semen quality in healthy men.
Eskenazi B, Kidd SA, Marks AR, Sloter E, Block G, Wyrobek AJ.
Hum Reprod. 2005 Apr;20(4):1006-12.

Sperm oxidative stress and the effect of an oral vitamin E and selenium supplement on semen quality in infertile men.
Keskes-Ammar L, Feki-Chakroun N, Rebai T, Sahnoun Z, Ghozzi H, Hammami S, Zghal K, Fki H, Damak J, Bahloul A.
Arch Androl. 2003 Mar-Apr;49(2):83-94.

Antioxidant supplements to prevent or slow down the progression of AMD: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Evans J.
Eye. 2008 Jun;22(6):751-60.

Topical vitamins.
Burgess C.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2008 Jul;7(7 Suppl):s2-6.

Does the plasma level of vitamins A and E affect acne condition?
El-Akawi Z, Abdel-Latif N, Abdul-Razzak K.
Clin Exp Dermatol. 2006 May;31(3):430-4.


Yohimbe - Selected References

Return to Yohimbe or Natural Remedies List or Home Page

Ostojic SM.
Yohimbine: the effects on body composition and exercise performance in soccer players.
Res Sports Med. 2006 Oct-Dec;14(4):289-99.

McCarty MF
Pre-exercise administration of yohimbine may enhance the efficacy of exercise training as a fat loss strategy by boosting lipolysis.
Med Hypotheses. 2002 Jun;58(6):491-5.

Greenway FL, Bray GA, Heber D.
Topical fat reduction.
Obes Res. 1995 Nov;3 Suppl 4:561S-568S.

Sax L.
YoInt J Obes. 1991 Sep;15(9):561-5.
Yohimbine does not affect fat distribution in men.

Greenway FL, Bray GA.
Regional fat loss from the thigh in obese women after adrenergic modulation.
Clin Ther. 1987;9(6):663-9.

Int J Impot Res. 2008 Jul-Aug;20(4):409-17.
Yohimbine enhances the effect of sildenafil on erectile process in rats.
Senbel AM, Mostafa T.

Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2008 Jan;195(4):459-67.
A novel approach for predicting antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction in rats.
Sukoff Rizzo SJ, Schechter LE, Rosenzweig-Lipson S.

Asian J Androl. 2007 May;9(3):403-7.
Yohimbine in the treatment of orgasmic dysfunction.
Adeniyi AA, Brindley GS, Pryor JP, Ralph DJ.

Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2006 Mar;83(3):360-9. Epub 2006 Mar 6.
The adrenergic alpha2 receptor and sexual incentive motivation in male rats.
Viitamaa T, Haapalinna A, Agmo A.

Biomed Res. 2005 Oct;26(5):201-6.
Long-lasting effects of yohimbine on the ejaculatory function in male dogs.
Yonezawa A, Yoshizumii M, Ebiko M, Amano T, Kimura Y, Sakurada S.

Urologe A. 2005 Oct;44(10):1160-6.
[Therapy for organic erectile dysfunction] [Article in German]
Becker AJ, Mayer M, Stief CG.

Altern Med Rev. 2004 Mar;9(1):4-16.
Nutrients and botanicals for erectile dysfunction: examining the evidence.
McKay D.

Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 2004 Jan-Feb;26(1):47-51.
Differential effects of yohimbine, naloxone and 8-OH-DPAT on ejaculatory response in male dogs.
Yonezawa A, Ando R, Imai M, Watanabe C, Furuta S, Kutsuwa M, Kimura Y, Sakurada S.

J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2003;14(3):301-8.
Eurycoma longifolia Jack enhances sexual motivation in middle-aged male mice.
Ang HH, Lee KL, Kiyoshi M.

Scand J Psychol. 2003 Jul;44(3):257-63.
Pharmacological and physiological aspects of sexual exhaustion in male rats.
Fernández-Guasti A, Rodríguez-Manzo G.

J Sex Marital Ther. 2003 May-Jun;29(3):185-205.
A review of plant-derived and herbal approaches to the treatment of sexual dysfunctions.
Rowland DL, Tai W.

Herz. 2003 Jun;28(4):314-24.
[New treatment options for erectile dysfunction. Pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic options] [Article in German]
Sperling H, LÃmmen G, Schneider T, RÃbben H.

Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2002 Sep;40(9):393-403.
Erectile dysfunction: oral pharmacotherapy options.
Vitezic D, Pelcic JM.

Arch Sex Behav. 2002 Aug;31(4):323-32.
The effects of yohimbine plus L-arginine glutamate on sexual arousal in postmenopausal women with sexual arousal disorder.
Meston CM, Worcel M.

Curr Urol Rep. 2001 Dec;2(6):488-94.
Central nervous system agents in the treatment of erectile dysfunction: how do they work?
Allard J, Giuliano F.

Eur Urol. 2002 Jun;41(6):608-13; discussion 613.
Efficacy and safety of a novel combination of L-arginine glutamate and yohimbine hydrochloride: a new oral therapy for erectile dysfunction.
Lebret T, Herv JM, Gorny P, Worcel M, Botto H.

Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2002 Jul;72(4):817-23.
Role of the lateral septal noradrenergic system in the elaboration of male sexual behavior in rats.
Gulia KK, Kumar VM, Mallick HN.

Int J Impot Res. 2002 Feb;14(1):25-31.
Yohimbine treatment of organic erectile dysfunction in a dose-escalation trial.
Guay AT, Spark RF, Jacobson J, Murray FT, Geisser ME.

J Psychiatr Res. 2002 May-Jun;36(3):147-52.
Mirtazapine, yohimbine or olanzapine augmentation therapy for serotonin reuptake-associated female sexual dysfunction: a randomized, placebo controlled trial.
Michelson D, Kociban K, Tamura R, Morrison MF.

Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2002 Feb;12(1):39-45.
Effects of yohimbine and apomorphine on the male sexual behaviour pattern of the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).
Arteaga M, Motte-Lara J, Velázquez-Moctezuma J.

Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2001 Sep;70(1):141-7.
Alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonists: effects on ejaculation, penile erection and pelvic thrusting behavior in dogs.
Yonezawa A, Ando R, Watanabe C, Furuta S, Kutsuwa M, Sakurada S, Kimura Y.

World J Urol. 2001 Aug;19(4):251-5.
Yohimbine in erectile dysfunction: would an orphan drug ever be properly assessed?
Morales A.

Urol Clin North Am. 2001 May;28(2):321-34.
Oral drug therapy for erectile dysfunction.
Padma-Nathan H, Giuliano F.

Eur J Endocrinol. 2000 Aug;143(2):143-54.
Erectile dysfunction: from biochemical pharmacology to advances in medical therapy.
Maggi M, Filippi S, Ledda F, Magini A, Forti G.

Int J Impot Res. 2000 Mar;12 Suppl 1:S70-74.
Yohimbine in erectile dysfunction: the facts.
Morales A.

Int J Androl. 2000;23 Suppl 2:82-4.
Phytochemicals and the breakthrough of traditional herbs in the management of sexual dysfunctions.
Adimoelja A.

Int J Impot Res. 2000 Mar;12(S1):S70-S74.
Yohimbine in erectile dysfunction: the facts.
Morales A.

Clin Ther. 2000;22 Suppl A:A42-57; discussion A58-61.
New directions in the treatment of antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction.
Rothschild AJ.

Biol Psychiatry. 1999 Jun 15;45(12):1636-45.
The effects of naltrexone maintenance on the response to yohimbine in healthy volunteers.
Rosen MI, Kosten TR, Kreek MJ.

Eur J Pharmacol. 1999 May 7;372(1):1-8.
Yohimbine interacts with the dopaminergic system to reverse sexual satiation: further evidence for a role of sexual motivation in sexual exhaustion.
Rodra­guez-Manzo G.

Urol Nurs. 1998 Jun;18(2):100-6.
Evaluation, treatment, and management of erectile dysfunction: an overview.
Colpo LM.

Ann Pharmacother. 1998 Nov;32(11):1209-15.
Management of SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction.
Woodrum ST, Brown CS.

Int J Impot Res. 1997 Sep;9(3):155-61.
Double-blind, placebo-controlled safety and efficacy trial with yohimbine hydrochloride in the treatment of nonorganic erectile dysfunction.
Vogt HJ, Brandl P, Kockott G, Schmitz JR, Wiegand MH, Schadrack J, Gierend M.

Urology. 1997 Mar;49(3):441-4.
Is high-dose yohimbine hydrochloride effective in the treatment of mixed-type impotence? A prospective, randomized, controlled double-blind crossover study.
Kunelius P, Häkkinen J, Lukkarinen O.

Arch Sex Behav. 1997 Feb;26(1):49-62.
Yohimbine, erectile capacity, and sexual response in men.
Rowland DL, Kallan K, Slob AK.

Arch Sex Behav. 1996 Aug;25(4):341-60.
Effectiveness of yohimbine in the treatment of erectile disorder: four meta-analytic integrations.
Carey MP, Johnson BT.

Arch Sex Behav. 1996 Feb;25(1):1-16.
Effects of yohimbine [ yohimbe ] on sexual experiences and nocturnal penile tumescence and rigidity in erectile dysfunction.
Mann K, Klingler T, Noe S, Raschke J, Maller S, Benkert O.

J Urol. 1996 Jan;155(1):144-6.
A randomized crossover study using yohimbine and isoxsuprine versus pentoxifylline in the management of vasculogenic impotence.
Knoll LD, Benson RC Jr, Bilhartz DL, Minich PJ, Furlow WL.

Lancet. 1987 Aug 22;2(8556):421-3.
Double-blind trial of yohimbine in treatment of psychogenic impotence.
Reid K, Surridge DH, Morales A, Condra M, Harris C, Owen J, Fenemore J.

Physiol Behav. 1987;41(1):7-14.
Alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonists and male sexual behavior: I. Mating behavior.
Smith ER, Lee RL, Schnur SL, Davidson JM.

Physiol Behav. 1987;41(1):15-9.
Alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonists and male sexual behavior: II. Erectile and ejaculatory reflexes.
Smith ER, Lee RL, Schnur SL, Davidson JM.

Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1986;88(1):58-62.
Imidazole has similar behavioural effects to yohimbine.
Ferrari F, Martinelli R, Baggio G.

Physiol Behav. 1985 Oct;35(4):517-21.
Testosterone is not required for the enhancement of sexual motivation by yohimbine.
Clark JT, Smith ER, Davidson JM.

Neuroendocrinology. 1985 Jul;41(1):36-43.
Evidence for the modulation of sexual behavior by alpha-adrenoceptors in male rats.
Clark JT, Smith ER, Davidson JM.

Science. 1984 Aug 24;225(4664):847-9.
Enhancement of sexual motivation in male rats by yohimbine.
Clark JT, Smith ER, Davidson JM.

Zinc - Selected References

Return to Zinc or Natural Remedies List or Home Page

A randomized, single-blind comparison of topical clindamycin + benzoyl peroxide (Duac) and erythromycin + zinc acetate (Zineryt) in the treatment of mild to moderate facial acne vulgaris.
Langner A, Sheehan-Dare R, Layton A.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2007 Mar;21(3):311-9.

Topical therapy of acne vulgaris using 2% tea lotion in comparison with 5% zinc sulphate solution.
Sharquie KE, Noaimi AA, Al-Salih MM.
Saudi Med J. 2008 Dec;29(12):1757-61.

Effects of zinc supplementation on parent and teacher behaviour rating scores in low socioeconomic level Turkish primary school children.
Uçkardeş Y, Ozmert EN, Unal F, Yurdakök K.
Acta Paediatr. 2009 Apr;98(4):731-6.

Zinc sulfate as an adjunct to methylphenidate for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children: a double blind and randomized trial [ISRCTN64132371].
Akhondzadeh S, Mohammadi MR, Khademi M.
BMC Psychiatry. 2004 Apr 8;4:9.

Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of zinc sulfate in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Bilici M, Yildirim F, Kandil S, Bekaroğlu M, Yildirmiş S, Değer O, Ulgen M, Yildiran A, Aksu H.
Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2004 Jan;28(1):181-90.

A randomized clinical trial on the treatment of oral herpes with topical zinc oxide/glycine.
Godfrey HR, Godfrey NJ, Godfrey JC, Riley D.
Altern Ther Health Med. 2001 May-Jun;7(3):49-56.

Micronutrient intake and the risk of herpes zoster: a case-control study.
Thomas SL, Wheeler JG, Hall AJ.
Int J Epidemiol. 2006 Apr;35(2):307-14.


Fertility - Selected References

[Influences of acupuncture on infertility of rats with polycystic ovadian syndrome] [Article in Chinese]
Zhang WY, Huang GY, Liu J.
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2009 Nov;29(11):997-1000.

Unexplained infertility treated with acupuncture and herbal medicine in Korea.
Park JJ, Kang M, Shin S, Choi E, Kwon S, Wee H, Nam B, Kaptchuk TJ.
J Altern Complement Med. 2010 Feb;16(2):193-8.

Acupuncture and herbal medicine in in vitro fertilisation: a review of the evidence for clinical practice.
Cheong Y, Nardo LG, Rutherford T, Ledger W.
Hum Fertil (Camb). 2010 Mar;13(1):3-12.

[Effects of electroacupuncture on in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) of patients with poor ovarian response] [Article in Chinese]
Chen J, Liu LL, Cui W, Sun W.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu. 2009 Oct;29(10):775-9.

Electroacupuncture reduces uterine artery blood flow impedance in infertile women.
Ho M, Huang LC, Chang YY, Chen HY, Chang WC, Yang TC, Tsai HD.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol. 2009 Jun;48(2):148-51.

Effects of electro-acupuncture on nerve growth factor and ovarian morphology in rats with experimentally induced polycystic ovaries.
Biol Reprod. 2000 Nov;63(5):1497-503.

Effects of electro-acupuncture on anovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
Stener-Victorin E, Waldenström U, Tägnfors U, Lundeberg T, Lindstedt G, Janson PO.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2000 Mar;79(3):180-8.

Influence of acupuncture on the pregnancy rate in patients who undergo assisted reproduction therapy.
Paulus WE, Zhang M, Strehler E, El-Danasouri I, Sterzik K.
Fertil Steril. 2002 Apr;77(4):721-4.

 

Revised: 15.08.2014

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